What is the crust like?
We live on the earth's crust, which is a thin layer of rock on the Earth's surface. It is the thinnest layer.
Describe the mantle.
It's the layer below the crust. It is the largest layer. Temperatures in the mantle are so hot the rocks found there move or flow.
In the mantle, pockets of _______ occasionally erupt upward through the Earth's crust.
When magma reaches the surface it is called ______.
What is the outer core made up of?
It is made of thick liquid nickel and iron (like pudding).
The outer two layers are composed primarily of _______ material.
What is the layer at the very center of the Earth?
The inner core is made of _________.
solid iron and nickel
Temperature and _________ increase as we move from the crust toward the inner core of the Earth.
Temperature and pressure cause what three things to happen?
1. Magma from the mantle erupts from a volcano.
2. Flowing rocks of the mantle cause the crust to move & earthquakes occur.
3. The flowing rocks of the mantle cause continents to move across the surface of Earth.
The Earth's layers are under incredible pressure and heat. This heat energy causes movement of ________ within the Earth.
Large continent-sized blocks are called?
The edges, or boundaries, of plates are called ______.
Most volcanoes and ________ occur on these faults.
When plates push together, a __________ __________ is formed.
Convergent boundaries cause _________ ________ to rise up from the Earth's surface.
In the Earth's oceans, convergent boundaries force plates downward to form ______ ______.
When plates move apart, a _______ _______ is formed.
Magma rises up between the two separating plates forming __________ and __________ _________.
volcanoes; mid-ocean ridges.
What can divergent boundaries form?
volcanoes and mid-ocean ridges
Most of Earth's new crust comes from the ______ that erupts from divergent boundaries.
When plates slide past each other horizontally _________ boundaries are formed.
What are the three types of rocks?
sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic
How are igneous rocks formed?
When magma (liquid rock) cools on the surface of the earth or deep within the earth.
What is weathering?
The breaking down of rocks and other materials into smaller particles.
What is erosion?
Weathered rock material that is moved by water and wind.
What can cause erosion?
It can be caused by wind, ice, running water, and waves.
How is a sedimentary rock formed?
When layers of sediments (weathered & eroded pieces of rock) are cemented together.
How is a metamorphic rock formed?
By the heat and pressure of sedimentary rock being pushed deeper and deeper into the earth.
A never ending process by which rocks are changed from one type into another is called __________.
the rock cycle.
What are fossils?
Remains or evidence of plants and animals preserved in rocks.
How are fossils formed?
When plants and animals die and are quickly buried by clay, sand and other sediments.
Fossils are found most often in sedimentary rocks. True or False
What is the hottest layer of Earth?
b. inner core
c. outer core
b. inner core