Chapter 6 Integumentary System Study Guide Questions

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The location of the hypodermis is best described as

Deep to the dermis.

The part of the hair enclosed in the follicle is known as the

Hair Root

Functions of the skin include the following:

Thermoregulation, sensory reception, and vitamin D synthesis

Place the three kinds of hair in the order in which they grow over the course of our lives. The top of your list should contain the type of hair that appears first in a fetus.

1. lanugo
2. vellus
3. terminal hair

The skin is composed of the:

epidermis and dermis only

Hairs called _________ shield the eyes from windblown debris with a quick blink.

Eyelashes

Identify the components of the integumentary system.

Epidermis, hair, dermis, and cutaneous glands.

Dark brown to black pigmentation of the skin results from:

Deposition of melanin by melanocytes.

The hair of the ________ enhance facial expression and to keep sweat out of the eyes.

Eyebrow

The skin is essential in sensing:

External stimuli

The __________ system consists of the skin and its accessory organs.

Integumentary

Hair cells are nourished by a _______.

Dermal papilla

Match the hair-type with the cross-sectional shape of the hair.

1. wavy hair ---> oval
2. straigh hair ----> round
3. tightly curly hair ----> flat

List components of the dermis.

Glands, nerve fibers, blood vessels, and fibers.

One of the important functions of the skin is to:

Sense changes in the environment.

List the tissue types found in the dermis.

Connective tissue, muscular tissue, epithelial tissue, and nervous tissue.

The integumentary layer indicated in the figure is the

dermis

_______ glands secrete a substance that combines with sebum to keep the eardrum protected and prevent foreign particles from entering the canal.

ceruminous

Name the type of hair type that is the predominant form of hair found on the scalp.

Terminal

________ is a protein produced in the cells of the epidermis that improves its durability and resistance to infection.

Keratin

Accessory organs or appendages of skin include:

hair, nails, and cutaneous glands

The structures that guard the nostrils and ear canals, preventing foreign particles from entering these areas are also called guard hairs or ____________.

vibrissae

List areas of the body where hair does not grow.

Palms of hands and soles of feet.

A core of loosely arranged cells and air spaces prominent in thick hair is called the:

medulla

List the epidermal layers that contain Langerhans (dendritic) cells.

stratum spinosum, and stratum granulosum

Describe the composition of sweat.

Acidic solution containing urea, potassium, sodium chloride and ammonia.

Name the common types of hemangioma

Capillary, cavernous, and port-wine

Hair grows in diagonal tubes called hair __________.

Follicles

The structure indicated in the figure is a(n) _________ ________.

piloerector muscle.

The arrow on the left of the figure is pointing to the integumentary layer called the ____________.

Epidermis.

The portion of a fingernail or toenail that is attached to the tip of the digit (finger) is called the _______.

Nail body

______ cells are skin cells with a sensory role.

Tactile

True or false: Melanin is the component of skin that is the primary determinant of skin color.

True.

Hair follicles and nail roots are embedded in:

Dermis

List conditions that commonly lead to the contraction of the piloerector muscles.

Cold, fear, and touch.

The layers of the epidermis are arranged in zones based upon the _____ of the keratinocytes.

Age.

List the features of skin that minimizes bacteria and fungi growth during an infection.

The acid mantle inhibits microbial growth. The cells of the skin shed frequently.
The dryness of the skin inhibits microbial growth.

The structures indicated in the figure are _______ glands.

Sweat.

The skin functions as a _________ to many potential harmful chemicals.

barrier or shield

Identify the cells that produce a pigment found in the skin.

Melanocytes.

Mechanical stress from manual labor accelerates keratinocyte multiplication. This results in formation of _______ or corns on the hands or feet.

callus

The term _______ describes the condition in which sweat is produced, causing noticeably wet skin during circulatory shock or exercise.

Diaphoresis

The mode of secretion for apocrine and merocrine glands is:

Exocytosis

Describe the stratum basale

Simple cuboidal stem cells and melanocytes resting on a basement membrane.

Identify the structure indicated in the figure.

Lamellar corpuscle

Name the skin type that covers the palms, soles, and surfaces of the fingers and toes.

Thick skin

A _______, or bruise, is a mass of clotted blood showing through the skin.

Hematoma

_________ glands are flask-shaped, with short ducts that usually open into a hair follicle and directly onto to skin.

Sebaceous

Unlike sweat glands and ceruminous glands, mammary glands:

Are usually active only in pregnant and lactating females.

The dermis consists of two zones: the _______ layer and the ________ layer.

papillary; reticular

A condition called _________ is a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes resulting from high levels of bilirubin in the blood

Jaundice

Sensing changes in the environment:

Is a major function of the skin.

The layer indicated in the figure is the

hypodermis

Name the flat melanized patches found on the skin that vary with heredity and exposure to the sun.

Freckles

Describe the composition of perspiration.

About 99% water and has a pH of 4-6

Cells in the epidermis are nourished by blood vessels located in the:

Dermis.

The hair types called _______ constitutes about two-thirds of the hair in women and one-tenth of the hair in men.

Vellus

Describe the hair matrix

The region of actively mitotic cells above the papilla

______ is blueness of the skin resulting from a deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood.

cyanosis

The dermis consists of connective tissue, with ______ as the most common fiber type within the layer.

collagen

Active cell division in the _____ allows the skin to regenerate quickly.

Epidermis

The deepest layer of the dermis is called the ______ layer.

Reticular

The ________ _______ is the protective film that gives skin its slight acidity.

Acid mantle

Name the oily component of the secretion of the sebaceous glands.

Sebum

An individual hair is also known as a(n):

Pilus

Describe the function of the subcutaneous layer.

An energy reservoir and thermal insulation

______ glands are holocrine glands that are associated with hair follicles.

Sebaceous

Name the area of epidermis that covers the nail bed.

Hyponychium

The bumps indicated by the arrows are called dermal _______.

Papilla

In the process of thermoregulation, cutaneous nerve endings monitor the _______ of the body surface.

temperature

The skin plays an important role in the synthesis of:

Vitamin D

The structure indicated by the arrow is a(n) __________.

hair shaft

Thinning of the hair, or baldness, is also called ________.

Alopecia

The majority of cells found in the epidermis are:

keratinocytes

Exposure to sunlight leads to:

Increased melanin production and darkening of the skin.

Oxygen and nutrients needed by the epidermal cells undergoing mitosis are acquired from blood vessels in the _______.

Dermis

Within a hair follicle, the _______ root sheath is an extension of the epidermis, and lies adjacent to the hair root.

epithelial

Name the connective tissue layer that lies between the skin and the deeper muscle or other tissue.

Hypodermis

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