making observations of the world, proposing ideas about how something works, testing those ideas, and discarding (or modifying) our ideas in response to the results of a test
how things work; tentative explanation for an observation that requires testing to validate
it must be possible to evaluate a hypothesis through observations of the measurable universe
it is not constrained by any laws of nature, and its behavior cannot be predicted using our current understanding of the natural world
an explanation of a set of related observations based on well-supported hypotheses from several different, independent lines of research
further supported by the observation that antibiotic treatment that targets particular microorganisms can cure certain illnesses
using a general principle to predict an expected observation; formed in if/then statements
What do both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have?
plasma membrane, DNA chromosomes, ribosomes, cytosol /cytoplasm
"True" Nucleus, Cytoplasm, larger cells, slower metabolism, and slower cell division rate.
What does "True" Nucleus mean?
nucleated/ nucleus, linear shaped chromosome, DNA segregated from the rest of the cell
"before" Nucleus, Cytoplasm, smaller cells, higher metabolism, and higher cell division rate
What does "Before" nucleus mean?
A nuclear-nucleoid region, circular shaped chromosome, DNA is not segregated from the rest of the cell, Plasmids
List 3 tenets of the cell theory
All living things are composed of cells, the cell is the smallest unit that exhibits life, cells can only come from preexisting cells (except the first one)
Explain how the cell theory illustrates a repeating them in biology
( Hierarchal arrangement) Large complex structures or systems are built from small simple components
What are the 4 functions of the cell?
metabolism, responsiveness (irritability). homeostasis, reproduction
Why do cells remain small?
the cell is more efficient in meeting the demands of the cell and sustaining life
always contain carbon, hydrogen, and usually oxygen, usually involves covalent bonding, large number of atoms, associated with living material
Any substance that tends to minimize the changes in pH that might otherwise occur when an acid or base is added to a solution
How do you know something is a base?
solutions feel slippery, are corrosive, have a bitter taste and can conduct electricity.
Any substance that donates OH- ions to a water solution. high concentrate of OH- ions and low concentrate of H+ ions
Any substance that donates H+ ions to a water solution. high H+ ions and low concentration of OH ions
What 3 key properties of water that make water essential to life?
water is polar, water absorbs and holds hear, water molecules have adhesion and cohesion
very weak bond between H with a slight charge and oxygen or nitrogen with a slight charge on another molecule
Compare polar vs. nonpolar covalent bonds and molecules
Polar molecules have a slight charge at each end of the molecule due to an unequal sharing of electrons
what chemicals are the human body made of?
oxygen 65%, carbon 18%, hydrogen 10%, nitrogen 3%, and other 4%
What 2 observations did Darwin try to explain with his theory?
Probably all of the organic beings which have ever lived on earth have descended from some one primordial from
common chemicals of life, cells, DNA, common metabolic pathways, energy production (ATP), lipid bilayer cellular membrane
What is a major difference between saturated and unsaturated fats
unsaturated fats contain carbon- to-carbon double bonds, but saturated fats don't
Imagine a newly discovered biological molecule that ism mostly hydrophobic in its structure. This new molecule will most likely be classified as a ____.
Because the electrons in the water molecule are shared unequally between hydrogen and oxygen water is said to be ____.
NASA uses Netwonian laws of motion in planning space shuttle missions to mars etc. Even though some modifications have been made to these laws. This illustrates that aspect that science?
gives knowledge that is durable
Correlations are less convincing than controlled experimental results because correlations ___.
do not eliminate as many alternative hypotheses as experimental results
The reaction outlined in the figure below is referred to as? glucose + glucose= malcrose + water
_____. is the state in which the internal environment is being maintained in spite of environmental changes or influences
A control group is _____.
a standard against which experimental groups are compared. And identical to experimental groups except for one variable
The scientific methodology, a way of knowing is characterized by...
hypothesis testing , and deductive and inductive reasoning
What are the six shared characteristics of living things?
constructed of the same kinds of atoms/ molecules, according to laws of energy, consist of one or more cell, use energy and raw materials from the environment to survive and reproduce.
explain the 'ex post facto' research of second hand cigarette smoke
you take examples and make an observation experimental is more exact and has evidence. correlation is only observations that can be interputted
key methods of science
observing, inferring, proposing ideas, testing the experiment, discarding those ideas that fail
may or may not be influenced by changes in the independent variable, but it cannot be systematically changed by the researchers
explain what happens to the fishes and the toads
biology of all the sciences, has the greatest potential for making major advance in aid of the humanity at the same time, most problems facing society today are either biological or have large biological components. Increase in Farming, the increase in population of toads feminization
Goal #1 for Biology
Attaining scientific literacy means that a person has the ability to describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena
Goal #2 for Biology
Attaining Scientific literacy entails being able to read with understanding articles about science in the popular press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of the conclusions
Goal #3 for Biology
Attaining scientific literacy implies that a person can identify scientific issues underlying national and local decisions and express positions that are scientifically and technologically informed
Goal #4 for Biology
attaining scientific literacy enables the citizen to evaluate the quality of scientific information on the basis of its source and the methods used to generate it.
body of knowledge, is an activity or process the underlying aim of which is to further our own understanding of why things happen the way they do in the natural or created world
generalizations related to the way some aspect of the natural world behaves under certain conditions
a subject who is similar to an experimental subject expect that the control is not exposed to the experimental treatment
designed to eliminate as many alternative hypotheses as possible for the result of experiment
What are organisms?
The same kinds of atoms/molecules, according to the same laws of energy, consists of one or more cells
all living things are composed of cells the cell is the structural and functional unit of life
living things can only come from living things or cells can only come from pre-existing cells
All chemical and physical processes involved in the transforming of energy and matter so that life can be maintained
How do organisms reproduce?
asexual means, sexual means, reproduction transmits DNA, perpetuales species or kinds
maintaining a constant internal environment to continue the process of life. Regulate internal environment changes
Specific structures, behaviors and abilities that suit life forms to their environment and their survival as an individual and as a species
common chemicals of life, cells, DNA, common metabolic pathways, energy production, lipid bilayer cellular membrane
C HOPKINS CaFe
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous,K(Potassium), Iodine, Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Ca (Calcium), Fe(Iron)
Why do atoms react with each other to form molecules?
Atoms interact with each other in order to become chemical bonds
an explanation of a set of related observations based on well-supported hypotheses from several different independent lines of research
it must be possible to evaluate a hypothesis through observations of the measurable universe
making observations of the world, proposing ideas about how something works, testing those ideas, and discarding or modifying our ideas in response to the results of a test
non-scientific observations or studies, which do not provide proof but may assist research efforts
What is a worldview?
A way of seeing or interpreting the world, a vision for a way of life, A way to answer life's major questions
What is a presupposition?
To suppose or assume before hand, take for granted inadvance. world views are usually built from a person's granted in advance
not constrained by any laws of nature, and it behavior cannot be predicted using our current understanding of the natural world
What are the 5 pillars of science?
Science is characterized by its demand for empirical evidence for its conditions, characterized by its demand for logical reasoning, has an epistemological framework and includes a set of presuppositions, human activity has limits, takes place within the value and norms of the culture
What are some limitations of science?
Limited to physical explanation of observable events, cannot make value judgments, cannot address ultimate questions of purpose, gives contingent or tentative knowledge