Principles of Biology

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1st exam over Ch. 1-3

Biology

is the study of living organisms

Scientific Method

making observations of the world, proposing ideas about how something works, testing those ideas, and discarding (or modifying) our ideas in response to the results of a test

Hypotheses

how things work; tentative explanation for an observation that requires testing to validate

observations

measurement of nature

testable

it must be possible to evaluate a hypothesis through observations of the measurable universe

supernatural

it is not constrained by any laws of nature, and its behavior cannot be predicted using our current understanding of the natural world

falsifiable

an observation or set observations could potentially prove it false

scientific theory

an explanation of a set of related observations based on well-supported hypotheses from several different, independent lines of research

Germ theory

further supported by the observation that antibiotic treatment that targets particular microorganisms can cure certain illnesses

theory

synonymous with untested hypothesis based on little information

inductive reasoning

combining a series of specific observations to discern a general principle

deductive reasoning

using a general principle to predict an expected observation; formed in if/then statements

prediction

concerns the outcome of an action, test, or investigation

Experiments

sets of actions or observations designed to test specific hypotheses

What do both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have?

plasma membrane, DNA chromosomes, ribosomes, cytosol /cytoplasm

Eukaryotic Cells

"True" Nucleus, Cytoplasm, larger cells, slower metabolism, and slower cell division rate.

What does "True" Nucleus mean?

nucleated/ nucleus, linear shaped chromosome, DNA segregated from the rest of the cell

Prokaryotic Cells

"before" Nucleus, Cytoplasm, smaller cells, higher metabolism, and higher cell division rate

What does "Before" nucleus mean?

A nuclear-nucleoid region, circular shaped chromosome, DNA is not segregated from the rest of the cell, Plasmids

Cell Theory

a unifying concept of biology and a biological universal

List 3 tenets of the cell theory

All living things are composed of cells, the cell is the smallest unit that exhibits life, cells can only come from preexisting cells (except the first one)

Explain how the cell theory illustrates a repeating them in biology

( Hierarchal arrangement) Large complex structures or systems are built from small simple components

What are the 3 basic components of a cell?

Plasma membrane, DNA, and cytoplasm/ cytosol

What are the 4 functions of the cell?

metabolism, responsiveness (irritability). homeostasis, reproduction

Why do cells remain small?

the cell is more efficient in meeting the demands of the cell and sustaining life

reactive group or functional group

groups of atoms covalently bonded to a carbon backbone

Hydroxyl group

oxygen, and hydrogen

Carbonyl group

carbon connected by a double bond to oxygen

carboxyl group

carbon double bonded with oxygen, and single bonded to oxygen and hydrogen

Amino Group

Nitrogen connected to two hydrogens

Sulfhydryl group

Sulfur and hydrogen

organic molecules

always contain carbon, hydrogen, and usually oxygen, usually involves covalent bonding, large number of atoms, associated with living material

Alkalosis

pH of blood increases, causes tetany

Acidosis

pH of blood decreases due to Carbon dioxide accumulation in blood

What is the role of a buffer in a living organism?

the pH of body fluids

Buffers

Any substance that tends to minimize the changes in pH that might otherwise occur when an acid or base is added to a solution

Acids and bases neutralize each other. True or False

True

How do you know something is a base?

solutions feel slippery, are corrosive, have a bitter taste and can conduct electricity.

Bases

Any substance that donates OH- ions to a water solution. high concentrate of OH- ions and low concentrate of H+ ions

How do you know something is an acid?

sour tasting, corrosive and can conduct electricity.

Acids

Any substance that donates H+ ions to a water solution. high H+ ions and low concentration of OH ions

What is the pH of pure water

7 or neutral

What is the pH of Acidic

pH lower than 7

What is the pH of basic

pH greater than 7

pH scale

measure of the relative amounts of acids and bases in a solution

What are water solutions classified as?

Acidic, basic, or neutral

What 3 key properties of water that make water essential to life?

water is polar, water absorbs and holds hear, water molecules have adhesion and cohesion

Hydrogen bonding

very weak bond between H with a slight charge and oxygen or nitrogen with a slight charge on another molecule

Compare polar vs. nonpolar covalent bonds and molecules

Polar molecules have a slight charge at each end of the molecule due to an unequal sharing of electrons

Covalent Bonding

sharing of a polar of electrons between two atoms

Chemical bonding

attractive forces between atoms causing them to associate or bond with each other

what chemicals are the human body made of?

oxygen 65%, carbon 18%, hydrogen 10%, nitrogen 3%, and other 4%

Chemistry

the study of the composition of matter, its interactions and the laws that govern them

What 2 observations did Darwin try to explain with his theory?

Probably all of the organic beings which have ever lived on earth have descended from some one primordial from

Biological universal

common chemicals of life, cells, DNA, common metabolic pathways, energy production (ATP), lipid bilayer cellular membrane

sexual

variation of genes from two different places

Asexual

making a thing on the outside of the body and reproduce a colon of itself

What is a major difference between saturated and unsaturated fats

unsaturated fats contain carbon- to-carbon double bonds, but saturated fats don't

What are the monomers building blocks that make up proteins?

amino acids

Imagine a newly discovered biological molecule that ism mostly hydrophobic in its structure. This new molecule will most likely be classified as a ____.

nucleic acid

Because the electrons in the water molecule are shared unequally between hydrogen and oxygen water is said to be ____.

polar

Each of the following is a feature of all known living things except

genes made from proteins

NASA uses Netwonian laws of motion in planning space shuttle missions to mars etc. Even though some modifications have been made to these laws. This illustrates that aspect that science?

gives knowledge that is durable

A statically significant result is one that ______.

is unlikely due to chance

Correlations are less convincing than controlled experimental results because correlations ___.

do not eliminate as many alternative hypotheses as experimental results

A _____ is a factor in an experiment that can be manipulated

variable

A scientific hypothesis has all the following features except that is ____.

able to be proven true

The reaction outlined in the figure below is referred to as? glucose + glucose= malcrose + water

dehydration synthesis

A glucose molecule is to starch as ____.

a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid

A fatty acid is unsaturated if it ________.

contains double bonds between carbon atoms

Which of the following is an organic molecule?

Lipids

Which of the following is not an organic molecule

sodium

water has special solvent characteristics because

it is polar

_____. is the state in which the internal environment is being maintained in spite of environmental changes or influences

Homeostasis

A control group is _____.

a standard against which experimental groups are compared. And identical to experimental groups except for one variable

The ability of water molecules to cling together and "flow" when moving is called ___.

cohesion

some living things may not be comprised of cells or even a single cell. True or False

False

The scientific methodology, a way of knowing is characterized by...

hypothesis testing , and deductive and inductive reasoning

What are the six shared characteristics of living things?

constructed of the same kinds of atoms/ molecules, according to laws of energy, consist of one or more cell, use energy and raw materials from the environment to survive and reproduce.

observation

information or record secured by such an act

explain the 'ex post facto' research of second hand cigarette smoke

you take examples and make an observation experimental is more exact and has evidence. correlation is only observations that can be interputted

key methods of science

observing, inferring, proposing ideas, testing the experiment, discarding those ideas that fail

inference

reason based on previous experience

experiments

sets of actions or observations designed to test specific hypothesis

data

the information collected by scientists during hypothesis testing

variables

any factor that can change in value under different conditions

independent variables

one whose value can be freely changed

dependent variable

may or may not be influenced by changes in the independent variable, but it cannot be systematically changed by the researchers

explain what happens to the fishes and the toads

biology of all the sciences, has the greatest potential for making major advance in aid of the humanity at the same time, most problems facing society today are either biological or have large biological components. Increase in Farming, the increase in population of toads feminization

Goal #1 for Biology

Attaining scientific literacy means that a person has the ability to describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena

Goal #2 for Biology

Attaining Scientific literacy entails being able to read with understanding articles about science in the popular press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of the conclusions

Goal #3 for Biology

Attaining scientific literacy implies that a person can identify scientific issues underlying national and local decisions and express positions that are scientifically and technologically informed

Goal #4 for Biology

attaining scientific literacy enables the citizen to evaluate the quality of scientific information on the basis of its source and the methods used to generate it.

science

body of knowledge, is an activity or process the underlying aim of which is to further our own understanding of why things happen the way they do in the natural or created world

Scientific literacy requires

knowing yourself, knowing your world, and knowing your God

Law

generalizations related to the way some aspect of the natural world behaves under certain conditions

control

a subject who is similar to an experimental subject expect that the control is not exposed to the experimental treatment

control groups

designed to eliminate as many alternative hypotheses as possible for the result of experiment

What are organisms?

The same kinds of atoms/molecules, according to the same laws of energy, consists of one or more cells

Cell theory

all living things are composed of cells the cell is the structural and functional unit of life

Biogenesis

living things can only come from living things or cells can only come from pre-existing cells

Metabolism

All chemical and physical processes involved in the transforming of energy and matter so that life can be maintained

How do organisms reproduce?

asexual means, sexual means, reproduction transmits DNA, perpetuales species or kinds

Homeostasis

maintaining a constant internal environment to continue the process of life. Regulate internal environment changes

Adapations

Specific structures, behaviors and abilities that suit life forms to their environment and their survival as an individual and as a species

Biological Universals

common chemicals of life, cells, DNA, common metabolic pathways, energy production, lipid bilayer cellular membrane

C HOPKINS CaFe

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous,K(Potassium), Iodine, Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Ca (Calcium), Fe(Iron)

Why do atoms react with each other to form molecules?

Atoms interact with each other in order to become chemical bonds

"Truth" in science

What we know and understand based on all currently available information

deductive reasoning

using a general principle to predict an expected observations

scientific theory

an explanation of a set of related observations based on well-supported hypotheses from several different independent lines of research

inductive reasoning

combining a series of specific observation to discern a general principle

falsifable

an observation or set of observations could potentially prove it false

testable

it must be possible to evaluate a hypothesis through observations of the measurable universe

scientific method

making observations of the world, proposing ideas about how something works, testing those ideas, and discarding or modifying our ideas in response to the results of a test

Anecdotal evidence

non-scientific observations or studies, which do not provide proof but may assist research efforts

What is a worldview?

A way of seeing or interpreting the world, a vision for a way of life, A way to answer life's major questions

What is a presupposition?

To suppose or assume before hand, take for granted inadvance. world views are usually built from a person's granted in advance

supernatural

not constrained by any laws of nature, and it behavior cannot be predicted using our current understanding of the natural world

Biology

study of living organisms

What are the 5 pillars of science?

Science is characterized by its demand for empirical evidence for its conditions, characterized by its demand for logical reasoning, has an epistemological framework and includes a set of presuppositions, human activity has limits, takes place within the value and norms of the culture

What are some limitations of science?

Limited to physical explanation of observable events, cannot make value judgments, cannot address ultimate questions of purpose, gives contingent or tentative knowledge

Correlations

the measure of the degree of the relationship between two variables.

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