ap chapter 7 tissues

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ap chapter 7 tissues (review slides)

hemopoiesis

the formation of blood cells

ossification

bone formation

sinus

air pocket in the bone

types of bone (6)

1. Cancellous (Spongy) Bone - inside bone
2. Compact Bone - outside
3. Long Bones - femur, tibia & humerous
4. Short Bones - carpals, tarsals
5. Flat Bones - skull, sternum
6. Irregular Bones - pelvis

parts of long bone (7)

1. Diaphysis - shaft
2. Epiphysis - bulby ends, where muscles attach
3. Epiphyseal plate or disk - cartilage, plate=still growing, line=stopped growing (white line)
4. Medullary or marrow cavity - hollow, living bone has marrow
5. Periosteum - around the bone
6. Endosteum - lines the cavity, inside
7. Articular cartilage - covers head & bottom

medula

inside

peri

around

bone tissue

connective tissue
1. Matrix dominates (calcium, calcium phosphate, sodium...)
2. Inorganic salt - hydroxyapatite
calcium phosphate (gives bones hardness)
3. Organic matrix - protein fibers = gives you flexibility

Note 1: need both organic and inorganic btw cells.
Note 2: if calcium phosphate is the only thing in the bones then brittle bones and they shattered.
Note 3: is only organic then osteoporosis

structure of the osteon (3 & 5 components)

bone tissue can repair itself due to blood supply

1. AKA Haversian systems
2. Permit delivery of nutrients and removal of waste products
3. Components
a. Lamella - layers, rings, aka matrix
b. Lacunae - dimples (osteon sits in lacunae)
c. Canaliculi - like like little cracks, actually canals
d. Central or Haversian canal - blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
e. Volkmann's or Perforating canals - mainly blood vessels. connects central canals (ex. if one central canal gets clogged then get from here)

lamella

layers, rings, aka matrix

lacunae

dimples, osteocyte sits in lacunae

canaliculi

like like little cracks, actually canals

central or Haversian canal

blood vessels, lymphatic vessels

Volkmann's or perforating canals

mainly blood vessels. connect central canals (ex. if one central canal gets clogged then get from here)

Cancellous or spongy bone (3)

helps the bone not be so heavy. Line up the points of stress, not across.

1. Sponge like appearance formed by plates of bone called trabeculae
2. Trabeculae have few osteons or central canals
- No osteocyte is far from blood of bone marrow
3. Provides strength with little weight
- Trabeculae develop along bone's lines of stress

Bone cells (3)

1. Osteoblasts - not trapped by matrix (under endosteum or periosteum
2. Osteocytes - trapped by matrix
3. Osteoclasts - break down
a. Multinucleated
breaks down matrix thru lysosome (which breaks down enzymes)

If you break bone you can rebuild matrix

Bone marrow (3)

1. Myeloid (myelo=bone marrow) tissue
2. In medullary cavity (long bone) and among trabeculae (spongy bone)
3. Site for the production of blood cells
a. Red marrow
i. In vertebrae, ribs, sternum, pelvic girdle and proximal heads of femur and humerus in ADULTS
b. Yellow marrow
i. Fatty marrow of long bones in adults

Note: kids have RBC in marrow in long bones b/c still growing

myelo

bone marrow

Functions of bone (5)

to make RBCs
1. Support (ex. to stand up)
2. Protection (ex. cover vital organs)
3. Movement - muscles covers - movement
4. Mineral storage - calcium, 98% of calcium is stored in bone. (too much calc. in blood, then store in bones - like a bank, can add to bank until 30-35)
5. Hematopoiesis (blood formation) - formation of blood cells, RBC, WBC, Platelets

can't live w/o calc.

osteoporosis

no calcium. deterioration of vertebral support.

1. Bones lose mass and become increasingly brittle and subject to fractures
2. More prevalent in women - postmenopausal
3. Men develop later in life - senile

genetics, diet & exercise

Development of bone (3)

1. Osteogenesis
2. Intramembranous ossification - replaces membrane
a. Occurs within a connective tissue membrane
b. Apposition growth
i. Adds bone tissue to outer surface (inside to outside) "suture" is where the bones grew together w/bone cells.
3. Endochondral ossification - replace cartilage
a. Occurs within a cartilage model
b. Bone is deposited by osteoblasts
c. Appositional and Interstitial growth
i. Increases in diameter and length

stages of ossification

cartilage gets blood flow from surface.
ossified the ends - so you can walk
ossified at shaft & cartilage is in between.

(see slide #16)

endochondral ossification 1/2

1. Most bones develop this process
2. Formation of primary ossification center and marrow cavity in shaft of model
a. Bony collar developed by osteoblasts
b. Chondrocytes swell and die
c. Stem cells give rise to osteoblasts and clasts
d. Bone laid down and marrow cavity created

epiphysis - needs to be remodeled (reshaped)
bone grows on the outside and then an inner layer disappears by osteoclasts. this is so the bones don't get too heavy

endochondral ossification 2/2

1. Secondary ossification centers and marrow cavities form in ends of bone
2. Cartilage remains as articular cartilage and epiphyseal (growth) plates
a. Growth plates provide for increase in length of bone during childhood and adolescence
b. Disappear when growth stops

Bone growth & remodeling (7)

1. Bones grow in length at epiphyseal plate
2. Bones grow in diameter by the combined action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts
3. Osteoclasts enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity
4. Osteoblasts from the periosteum build new bone around the outside of the bone
5. Bone formation = bone destruction in early to middle years
6. Remodeling activity important in homeostasis of blood calcium levels.
7. Remodeling occurs throughout life

women stop growing around the time of the start of their period, in case they get pregnant. don't want to compete w/baby for calcium.
males have denser bones

Repair of fractures 1/2

1. Fracture tears and destroys blood vessels that carry nutrients to osteocytes
2. Vascular damage initiates repair sequence
3. Callus - specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together
4. Rapidly growing callus tissue effectively collars broken ends and stabilizes fracture so healing can proceed.

repair of fractures 2/2

1. Normally 8 - 12 weeks (longer in elderly)
2. Stages of healing
a. Fracture hematoma - clot forms, then osteogenic cells form granulation tissue
b. Soft callus
i. Fibroblasts produce fibers and fibrocartilage
c. Hard callus
i. Osteoblasts produce a bony collar in 6 weeks
d. Remodeling in 3 to 4 months
i. spongy bone replaced by compact bone

Factors affecting bone growth (8)

1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)

spinal disorder (scoliotic spine)

curvature of the spine

spinal disorder (lordosis)

exaggerated lumbar curve

spinal disorder (kyphotic)

thoracic curve (hunchback)

osteoblast

bone forming cell
Builds matrix

osteoclast

bone absorbing cell

breaks down the matrix

osteocyte

bone cell (mature bone cells)

Maintains matrix

osteogenesis

combined action of osteoblasts & osteoclasts to mold bones into adult shape

osteon

cylinder shaped structural unit in compact bone

central canals contain

blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves

osteoblasts & osteoclast & calcium

1. during bone formation osteoblasts remove calcium from blood, lowering its circulating levels
2. when osteoclasts are active and breakdown of bone predominates, calcium is released into blood & circulating levels will increase.

osteoclasts stimulates

osteoclasts, if the level of calcium in the blood is low & vitamin D systhesis (which increases the efficiency of absorption of calcium in the intestines)

calcitonin secretion

high blood calcium levels results in stimulation of osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts

appositional growth

growth in diameter

interstitial growth

growth in length

callus

specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together.

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