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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Factors affecting bone growth (8)
  2. stages of ossification
  3. repair of fractures 2/2
  4. central or Haversian canal
  5. canaliculi
  1. a blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
  2. b 1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
    2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
    3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
    4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
    5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
    6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
    7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
    8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)
  3. c 1. Normally 8 - 12 weeks (longer in elderly)
    2. Stages of healing
    a. Fracture hematoma - clot forms, then osteogenic cells form granulation tissue
    b. Soft callus
    i. Fibroblasts produce fibers and fibrocartilage
    c. Hard callus
    i. Osteoblasts produce a bony collar in 6 weeks
    d. Remodeling in 3 to 4 months
    i. spongy bone replaced by compact bone
  4. d like like little cracks, actually canals
  5. e cartilage gets blood flow from surface.
    ossified the ends - so you can walk
    ossified at shaft & cartilage is in between.

    (see slide #16)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. inside
  2. bone tissue can repair itself due to blood supply

    1. AKA Haversian systems
    2. Permit delivery of nutrients and removal of waste products
    3. Components
    a. Lamella - layers, rings, aka matrix
    b. Lacunae - dimples (osteon sits in lacunae)
    c. Canaliculi - like like little cracks, actually canals
    d. Central or Haversian canal - blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
    e. Volkmann's or Perforating canals - mainly blood vessels. connects central canals (ex. if one central canal gets clogged then get from here)
  3. 1. Osteogenesis
    2. Intramembranous ossification - replaces membrane
    a. Occurs within a connective tissue membrane
    b. Apposition growth
    i. Adds bone tissue to outer surface (inside to outside) "suture" is where the bones grew together w/bone cells.
    3. Endochondral ossification - replace cartilage
    a. Occurs within a cartilage model
    b. Bone is deposited by osteoblasts
    c. Appositional and Interstitial growth
    i. Increases in diameter and length
  4. 1. Secondary ossification centers and marrow cavities form in ends of bone
    2. Cartilage remains as articular cartilage and epiphyseal (growth) plates
    a. Growth plates provide for increase in length of bone during childhood and adolescence
    b. Disappear when growth stops
  5. growth in diameter

5 True/False questions

  1. calcitonin secretionhigh blood calcium levels results in stimulation of osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts

          

  2. osteoclastbone forming cell
    Builds matrix

          

  3. osteoclasts stimulatesbone absorbing cell

    breaks down the matrix

          

  4. myeloinside

          

  5. spinal disorder (lordosis)thoracic curve (hunchback)

          

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