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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. repair of fractures 2/2
  2. Repair of fractures 1/2
  3. Bone cells (3)
  4. hemopoiesis
  5. endochondral ossification 2/2
  1. a 1. Secondary ossification centers and marrow cavities form in ends of bone
    2. Cartilage remains as articular cartilage and epiphyseal (growth) plates
    a. Growth plates provide for increase in length of bone during childhood and adolescence
    b. Disappear when growth stops
  2. b 1. Fracture tears and destroys blood vessels that carry nutrients to osteocytes
    2. Vascular damage initiates repair sequence
    3. Callus - specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together
    4. Rapidly growing callus tissue effectively collars broken ends and stabilizes fracture so healing can proceed.
  3. c 1. Normally 8 - 12 weeks (longer in elderly)
    2. Stages of healing
    a. Fracture hematoma - clot forms, then osteogenic cells form granulation tissue
    b. Soft callus
    i. Fibroblasts produce fibers and fibrocartilage
    c. Hard callus
    i. Osteoblasts produce a bony collar in 6 weeks
    d. Remodeling in 3 to 4 months
    i. spongy bone replaced by compact bone
  4. d 1. Osteoblasts - not trapped by matrix (under endosteum or periosteum
    2. Osteocytes - trapped by matrix
    3. Osteoclasts - break down
    a. Multinucleated
    breaks down matrix thru lysosome (which breaks down enzymes)

    If you break bone you can rebuild matrix
  5. e the formation of blood cells

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. 1. Bones grow in length at epiphyseal plate
    2. Bones grow in diameter by the combined action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts
    3. Osteoclasts enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity
    4. Osteoblasts from the periosteum build new bone around the outside of the bone
    5. Bone formation = bone destruction in early to middle years
    6. Remodeling activity important in homeostasis of blood calcium levels.
    7. Remodeling occurs throughout life

    women stop growing around the time of the start of their period, in case they get pregnant. don't want to compete w/baby for calcium.
    males have denser bones
  2. bone forming cell
    Builds matrix
  3. specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together.
  4. growth in diameter
  5. dimples, osteocyte sits in lacunae

5 True/False Questions

  1. bone tissueconnective tissue
    1. Matrix dominates (calcium, calcium phosphate, sodium...)
    2. Inorganic salt - hydroxyapatite
    calcium phosphate (gives bones hardness)
    3. Organic matrix - protein fibers = gives you flexibility

    Note 1: need both organic and inorganic btw cells.
    Note 2: if calcium phosphate is the only thing in the bones then brittle bones and they shattered.
    Note 3: is only organic then osteoporosis

          

  2. osteoporosisno calcium. deterioration of vertebral support.

    1. Bones lose mass and become increasingly brittle and subject to fractures
    2. More prevalent in women - postmenopausal
    3. Men develop later in life - senile

    genetics, diet & exercise

          

  3. structure of the osteon (3 & 5 components)1. during bone formation osteoblasts remove calcium from blood, lowering its circulating levels
    2. when osteoclasts are active and breakdown of bone predominates, calcium is released into blood & circulating levels will increase.

          

  4. Development of bone (3)1. Cancellous (Spongy) Bone - inside bone
    2. Compact Bone - outside
    3. Long Bones - femur, tibia & humerous
    4. Short Bones - carpals, tarsals
    5. Flat Bones - skull, sternum
    6. Irregular Bones - pelvis

          

  5. osteoclasts stimulatesbone absorbing cell

    breaks down the matrix

          

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