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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. types of bone (6)
  2. endochondral ossification 1/2
  3. appositional growth
  4. ossification
  5. lamella
  1. a layers, rings, aka matrix
  2. b 1. Most bones develop this process
    2. Formation of primary ossification center and marrow cavity in shaft of model
    a. Bony collar developed by osteoblasts
    b. Chondrocytes swell and die
    c. Stem cells give rise to osteoblasts and clasts
    d. Bone laid down and marrow cavity created

    epiphysis - needs to be remodeled (reshaped)
    bone grows on the outside and then an inner layer disappears by osteoclasts. this is so the bones don't get too heavy
  3. c 1. Cancellous (Spongy) Bone - inside bone
    2. Compact Bone - outside
    3. Long Bones - femur, tibia & humerous
    4. Short Bones - carpals, tarsals
    5. Flat Bones - skull, sternum
    6. Irregular Bones - pelvis
  4. d growth in diameter
  5. e bone formation

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. bone marrow
  2. connective tissue
    1. Matrix dominates (calcium, calcium phosphate, sodium...)
    2. Inorganic salt - hydroxyapatite
    calcium phosphate (gives bones hardness)
    3. Organic matrix - protein fibers = gives you flexibility

    Note 1: need both organic and inorganic btw cells.
    Note 2: if calcium phosphate is the only thing in the bones then brittle bones and they shattered.
    Note 3: is only organic then osteoporosis
  3. osteoclasts, if the level of calcium in the blood is low & vitamin D systhesis (which increases the efficiency of absorption of calcium in the intestines)
  4. thoracic curve (hunchback)
  5. 1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
    2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
    3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
    4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
    5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
    6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
    7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
    8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)

5 True/False questions

  1. endochondral ossification 2/21. Secondary ossification centers and marrow cavities form in ends of bone
    2. Cartilage remains as articular cartilage and epiphyseal (growth) plates
    a. Growth plates provide for increase in length of bone during childhood and adolescence
    b. Disappear when growth stops

          

  2. osteoblastbone forming cell
    Builds matrix

          

  3. osteoblasts & osteoclast & calciumosteoclasts, if the level of calcium in the blood is low & vitamin D systhesis (which increases the efficiency of absorption of calcium in the intestines)

          

  4. Cancellous or spongy bone (3)helps the bone not be so heavy. Line up the points of stress, not across.

    1. Sponge like appearance formed by plates of bone called trabeculae
    2. Trabeculae have few osteons or central canals
    - No osteocyte is far from blood of bone marrow
    3. Provides strength with little weight
    - Trabeculae develop along bone's lines of stress

          

  5. osteoporosiscombined action of osteoblasts & osteoclasts to mold bones into adult shape

          

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