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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. central or Haversian canal
  2. osteoblasts & osteoclast & calcium
  3. lacunae
  4. osteogenesis
  5. spinal disorder (scoliotic spine)
  1. a combined action of osteoblasts & osteoclasts to mold bones into adult shape
  2. b dimples, osteocyte sits in lacunae
  3. c blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
  4. d 1. during bone formation osteoblasts remove calcium from blood, lowering its circulating levels
    2. when osteoclasts are active and breakdown of bone predominates, calcium is released into blood & circulating levels will increase.
  5. e curvature of the spine

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. 1. Myeloid (myelo=bone marrow) tissue
    2. In medullary cavity (long bone) and among trabeculae (spongy bone)
    3. Site for the production of blood cells
    a. Red marrow
    i. In vertebrae, ribs, sternum, pelvic girdle and proximal heads of femur and humerus in ADULTS
    b. Yellow marrow
    i. Fatty marrow of long bones in adults

    Note: kids have RBC in marrow in long bones b/c still growing
  2. 1. Secondary ossification centers and marrow cavities form in ends of bone
    2. Cartilage remains as articular cartilage and epiphyseal (growth) plates
    a. Growth plates provide for increase in length of bone during childhood and adolescence
    b. Disappear when growth stops
  3. 1. Cancellous (Spongy) Bone - inside bone
    2. Compact Bone - outside
    3. Long Bones - femur, tibia & humerous
    4. Short Bones - carpals, tarsals
    5. Flat Bones - skull, sternum
    6. Irregular Bones - pelvis
  4. growth in diameter
  5. connective tissue
    1. Matrix dominates (calcium, calcium phosphate, sodium...)
    2. Inorganic salt - hydroxyapatite
    calcium phosphate (gives bones hardness)
    3. Organic matrix - protein fibers = gives you flexibility

    Note 1: need both organic and inorganic btw cells.
    Note 2: if calcium phosphate is the only thing in the bones then brittle bones and they shattered.
    Note 3: is only organic then osteoporosis

5 True/False questions

  1. Functions of bone (5)1. Cancellous (Spongy) Bone - inside bone
    2. Compact Bone - outside
    3. Long Bones - femur, tibia & humerous
    4. Short Bones - carpals, tarsals
    5. Flat Bones - skull, sternum
    6. Irregular Bones - pelvis

          

  2. Factors affecting bone growth (8)1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
    2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
    3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
    4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
    5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
    6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
    7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
    8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)

          

  3. spinal disorder (lordosis)exaggerated lumbar curve

          

  4. Repair of fractures 1/21. Normally 8 - 12 weeks (longer in elderly)
    2. Stages of healing
    a. Fracture hematoma - clot forms, then osteogenic cells form granulation tissue
    b. Soft callus
    i. Fibroblasts produce fibers and fibrocartilage
    c. Hard callus
    i. Osteoblasts produce a bony collar in 6 weeks
    d. Remodeling in 3 to 4 months
    i. spongy bone replaced by compact bone

          

  5. Bone cells (3)1. Myeloid (myelo=bone marrow) tissue
    2. In medullary cavity (long bone) and among trabeculae (spongy bone)
    3. Site for the production of blood cells
    a. Red marrow
    i. In vertebrae, ribs, sternum, pelvic girdle and proximal heads of femur and humerus in ADULTS
    b. Yellow marrow
    i. Fatty marrow of long bones in adults

    Note: kids have RBC in marrow in long bones b/c still growing

          

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