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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. spinal disorder (lordosis)
  2. stages of ossification
  3. myelo
  4. ossification
  5. hemopoiesis
  1. a exaggerated lumbar curve
  2. b the formation of blood cells
  3. c cartilage gets blood flow from surface.
    ossified the ends - so you can walk
    ossified at shaft & cartilage is in between.

    (see slide #16)
  4. d bone marrow
  5. e bone formation

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. mainly blood vessels. connect central canals (ex. if one central canal gets clogged then get from here)
  2. thoracic curve (hunchback)
  3. 1. Normally 8 - 12 weeks (longer in elderly)
    2. Stages of healing
    a. Fracture hematoma - clot forms, then osteogenic cells form granulation tissue
    b. Soft callus
    i. Fibroblasts produce fibers and fibrocartilage
    c. Hard callus
    i. Osteoblasts produce a bony collar in 6 weeks
    d. Remodeling in 3 to 4 months
    i. spongy bone replaced by compact bone
  4. 1. Secondary ossification centers and marrow cavities form in ends of bone
    2. Cartilage remains as articular cartilage and epiphyseal (growth) plates
    a. Growth plates provide for increase in length of bone during childhood and adolescence
    b. Disappear when growth stops
  5. to make RBCs
    1. Support (ex. to stand up)
    2. Protection (ex. cover vital organs)
    3. Movement - muscles covers - movement
    4. Mineral storage - calcium, 98% of calcium is stored in bone. (too much calc. in blood, then store in bones - like a bank, can add to bank until 30-35)
    5. Hematopoiesis (blood formation) - formation of blood cells, RBC, WBC, Platelets

    can't live w/o calc.

5 True/False questions

  1. osteogenesisno calcium. deterioration of vertebral support.

    1. Bones lose mass and become increasingly brittle and subject to fractures
    2. More prevalent in women - postmenopausal
    3. Men develop later in life - senile

    genetics, diet & exercise

          

  2. Cancellous or spongy bone (3)1. Diaphysis - shaft
    2. Epiphysis - bulby ends, where muscles attach
    3. Epiphyseal plate or disk - cartilage, plate=still growing, line=stopped growing (white line)
    4. Medullary or marrow cavity - hollow, living bone has marrow
    5. Periosteum - around the bone
    6. Endosteum - lines the cavity, inside
    7. Articular cartilage - covers head & bottom

          

  3. endochondral ossification 1/21. Most bones develop this process
    2. Formation of primary ossification center and marrow cavity in shaft of model
    a. Bony collar developed by osteoblasts
    b. Chondrocytes swell and die
    c. Stem cells give rise to osteoblasts and clasts
    d. Bone laid down and marrow cavity created

    epiphysis - needs to be remodeled (reshaped)
    bone grows on the outside and then an inner layer disappears by osteoclasts. this is so the bones don't get too heavy

          

  4. interstitial growthgrowth in diameter

          

  5. Bone growth & remodeling (7)1. Bones grow in length at epiphyseal plate
    2. Bones grow in diameter by the combined action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts
    3. Osteoclasts enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity
    4. Osteoblasts from the periosteum build new bone around the outside of the bone
    5. Bone formation = bone destruction in early to middle years
    6. Remodeling activity important in homeostasis of blood calcium levels.
    7. Remodeling occurs throughout life

    women stop growing around the time of the start of their period, in case they get pregnant. don't want to compete w/baby for calcium.
    males have denser bones

          

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