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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. sinus
  2. bone tissue
  3. Bone cells (3)
  4. osteoclast
  5. osteoblasts & osteoclast & calcium
  1. a connective tissue
    1. Matrix dominates (calcium, calcium phosphate, sodium...)
    2. Inorganic salt - hydroxyapatite
    calcium phosphate (gives bones hardness)
    3. Organic matrix - protein fibers = gives you flexibility

    Note 1: need both organic and inorganic btw cells.
    Note 2: if calcium phosphate is the only thing in the bones then brittle bones and they shattered.
    Note 3: is only organic then osteoporosis
  2. b bone absorbing cell

    breaks down the matrix
  3. c 1. during bone formation osteoblasts remove calcium from blood, lowering its circulating levels
    2. when osteoclasts are active and breakdown of bone predominates, calcium is released into blood & circulating levels will increase.
  4. d 1. Osteoblasts - not trapped by matrix (under endosteum or periosteum
    2. Osteocytes - trapped by matrix
    3. Osteoclasts - break down
    a. Multinucleated
    breaks down matrix thru lysosome (which breaks down enzymes)

    If you break bone you can rebuild matrix
  5. e air pocket in the bone

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves
  2. exaggerated lumbar curve
  3. around
  4. layers, rings, aka matrix
  5. no calcium. deterioration of vertebral support.

    1. Bones lose mass and become increasingly brittle and subject to fractures
    2. More prevalent in women - postmenopausal
    3. Men develop later in life - senile

    genetics, diet & exercise

5 True/False questions

  1. Bone marrow (3)1. Myeloid (myelo=bone marrow) tissue
    2. In medullary cavity (long bone) and among trabeculae (spongy bone)
    3. Site for the production of blood cells
    a. Red marrow
    i. In vertebrae, ribs, sternum, pelvic girdle and proximal heads of femur and humerus in ADULTS
    b. Yellow marrow
    i. Fatty marrow of long bones in adults

    Note: kids have RBC in marrow in long bones b/c still growing

          

  2. callusair pocket in the bone

          

  3. Volkmann's or perforating canalsblood vessels, lymphatic vessels

          

  4. Factors affecting bone growth (8)1. Deficiency of Vitamin A - retards bone development
    2. Deficiency of Vitamin C - results in fragile bones (collagen/fiber in connective tissue)
    3. Deficiency of Vitamin D - rickets, osteomalacia - softening of bones, vit D makes bones solid
    4. Insufficient Growth Hormone - dwarfism
    5. Excessive Growth Hormone - gigantism (beofre fusion), acromegaly (after bone fusion)
    6. Insufficient Thyroid Hormone - delays bone growth
    7. Sex Hormones - promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
    8. Physical Stress - stimulates bone growth (b/c of remodeling)

          

  5. osteoncylinder shaped structural unit in compact bone

          

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