Evolution

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Which scientist formulated the theory of evolution through natural selection?

Charles Darwin

Lamarch's ideas about evolution were wrong because he proposed that___?

acquired characteristics can be inherited

Lyell's "Principles of Geology" influnced Darwin because it explained how___?

The surface of the Earth changes over time

A farmer's use of the best livestockn for breeding is an example of___?

artificial selection

The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its natural environment is called___?

fitness

What is an important concept in Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection

descent with modification

What does not provide evidence of evolution?

natural variation within a species

Why do DNA and RNA provide evidence of evolution?

In most organisms, the same codons specify the same amino acids

A bird's wings are homologous to ___?

A dog's front legs

Study of biogeography helps scientists___?

make connections between where modern species and their ancestors lived

In vertebrates, groups of embryonic cells developing in the same order and in similar patterns result in ___?

homologous tissues and organs

The wing of a bird and the wing of an ancestor have similar functions, but they evolved independently. This is an example of___?

analogous structures

The DNA in yeast, grizzlt bears, centipedes, and palm trees all share

the same genetic code

Within a species, great heritable variation___?

increases the likelihood of a species' adapting to and surviving environmental changes

camouflage and mimicry are example of___?

adaption

natural selection acts only on___?

inherited traits

Darwin's theory of descent with modification refers to ___?

the process of species evolving from common ancestors

Dawrin realized that Malthus' ideas about human population growth applied even more to other organisms, such as why ___?

oysters produce millions of eggs but only a few survive

Hutton and Lyell's research suggested that Earth ___?

changes slowly over long periods of time

How did Darwin explain his observation of fossils of marine animals found several thousand feet above sea level?

geological events caused the ancient seafloor to move to a higher elevation

Lamarck proposed that species changed due to___?

use or disuse of organs

Selective breeding of domesticated organisms by humans to enhance useful traits is known as ___?

artificial selection

Darwin observed that different habitats within a local area contained animal species that were ___?

different yet cloesly related

the process of change over time

evolution

What was the name of the voyage Darwin went on?

HMS Beagle

On his voyage, Darwin noticed that similar habitats in different parts of the world contained

different but ecologically similar plants and animals

Darwin drew support for his theory of evolution from the observation that fossils ____?

of some extinct animals are similar to living species

When and where was Darwin born?

February 12, 1809 in England

In what year did Darwin begin his voyage? How long was it? Where was it?

1831; 5 years; along the coastline of South Africa

What 3 distincitve patterns of biological diversity did Darwin notice as he travelled?

1. species vary globally
2. species vary locally
3. species vary over time

fossils

remains or traces of ancient organisms

Natural selection occurs in any situation in which:

1. more individuals are born than can survive
2. there is natural heritable variation
3. there is a variable fitness among individuals

natural selection is the ___ force of evolution

driving

What were Hutton's and Lyell's ideas about the age of Earth and the processes that shape the planet?

Earth is extremely old and the processes that changed Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present.

What is an acquired characteristic? What role did Lamarck think acquired characteristics played in evolution?

Traits altered by an individual organism during its life are called acquired characteristics. Organisms could use or not use organisms/resources to acquire or not acquire certain characteristics.

What parts of Lamarck's hypotheses have been proved wrong? What did Lamarck get right?

wrong= organisms don't have an inborn drive to become perfect; evolution does not mean that a species becomes "better" or "worse". right=species are not fixed

What three kinds of variations among organisms did Darwin observe during the voyage of the Beagle?

Rheas, Galapagos Islands, and fossils

Who wrote "The Orgins of Species?"

Dawrin

The preserved remains of organsims that loved long ago, often found in rocks and typically resemble parts of living organisms

fossils

through ____ evolution, unrelated species in similar environments evolve similar body functions from dissimilar underlying structures called ___

analogous structures

through ___ evolution, cloesly related species living in dissimlar environments evolve dissimlar body functions from similar underlying structures called ___

homologous structures

some species of organisms have _____ with no apparent purpose, which are homologous to functional structures in other species

vestigial structures

the wing of a butterfly and the wing of a bird are ___ structures

analogous

the forelimb of a human and the forelimb of a whale are ___ structures

homologous

artificial selection

organisms may be modified by controlled selection

Before Darwin, most people thought that species were ____?

incapable of change

Who proposed that an internal drive toward complexity within cells is the driving force of evolution?

Lamarck

In ____ evolution, the two forms being modified are ____

convergent; unrelated

convergent evolution resluts in

analogous structures

What proposes that living organisms inherited body parts modified through use or disuse

inheritence of acquired characteristics

What is homologous to the human arm?

tail of a salamander

Evidence for evolution

1. biochem
2. embryos
3. comparative anatomy
4. domestication of plants and animals

Fossils provide direct evidence for ___?

structural similarities and differences

gene flow

the movement of alleles from one population to another owing to the migration of individual organisms

genetic drift

change in allele frequencies of a small population purely by chance

natural selection is primarily an issue of ____

differential reproduction: organisms with favorable alleles leave more offspring that do other individuals with less favorable alleles

natural selection acts on the ___

phenotype

_____ selection shifts character traits in a specific direction

directoinal

directional selection favors ____ against both average and large individuals of population

small size

directional selection favors individuals at ___ of a distribution range for a trait and selects against ___

one end; average individuals

stabalizing selection

acts against individuals who deviate too far from the average

balanced polymorphisms

2 or more alleles areb maintained in a population because each is favored by a separate environmental force

disruptive selection

adapts individuals within a population to different habitats

disruptive selection favors individuals at ____ of the distribution of a trait and selects ____ average individuals

both; against

What does evolution represent?

significant changes in allele frequencies over time in a population

coevolution

the evolution of adaptions in different species due to extensive interactions with each other

population

a group of individuals of the same species found in the same place and time

allele frequency

the relative proportion of each allele of a gene found in a population

gene pool

the total of all alleles of all genes in the population

founder effect

occurs when an isolated population is founded by a small number of individuals, this population may develop allele frequencies that are very different from those of the parent population

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