AP U.S. History Chapter 3

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John Calvin

formed Calvinism- believed in predestination

Predestination

doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by god

Visible Saints

people who had seen their conversion and lived lives of holy behavior

Puritans

English religious reformers who wanted to break all ties with Rome and follow Calvinism

Separatists

Puritans who only wanted visible saints in the Churches and wanted to leave the Church

Mayflower

boat the Separatists used to go to New England

Captain Miles Standish

soldier who turned out to be a good Indian fighter and negotiator

Mayflower Compact

Precedent to further constitutions- establishment of self-government

William Bradford

governor of Plymouth- worried about non-Puritan settlers

Massachusetts Bay Colony

colony formed by the Puritans to get away from attacks from conservatives in England

Great Migration

1630s- 70,000 refugees left England for New World

John Winthrop

1st governor of Massachusetts colony

City Upon a Hill

name of Massachusetts colony symbolizing how it will be a Puritan example that others will look up to

John Cotton

Puritan- enforced the religious rules

Blue Law State

nickname for Connecticut- had strict Puritan laws (no kissing in public)

Michael Wigglesworth

poet who wrote a very detailed description of Puritan Hell

Anne Hutchinson

Puritan woman who challenged predestination- antinomianism

Antinomianism

couldn't be saved by good actions, so the truly saved need not obey the laws of God or man

Roger Williams

Extreme separatist- condemned Bay colony for taking land from Indians- thought government should not regulate religious behavior

Rogues Island

nickname for Rhode Island- founded by Roger Williams for outcasts- freedom of religion

Thomas Hooker

Reverend who led a group of Puritans west to Connecticut

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

modern constitution- established a more democratically controlled government- written by Connecticut River settlers

Squanto

Wampanoag indian who learned English- helped keep peace w/ settlers

Wampanoags

indian tribe that tried to be peaceful

Massasoit

wampanog chief who signed a treaty w/ the Pilgrims and celebrated Thanksgiving

Pequot War

1637- war between the colonists and the Pequot tribe- ended in destruction of the tribe and uneasy peace

Metacom (King Philip)

Indian who united the tribes and defeated 52 Puritan towns

King Philip's War

1676- united tribes and attacked Puritans- slowed Western expansion- killed Indians

New England Confederation

1643-1686- 4 colonies banded together- all Puritan- step toward American unity

Dominion of New England

1686- 1688- created in London- regulated trade (Navigation Acts) and increased defense against Indians in colonies

Sir Edmund Andros

head of new Dominion- open affiliation w/ Church of England, decreased the power of local authority- hated in the Puritan colonies

Navigation Laws

laws that restricted American trade with other countries

Glorious Revolution

event in England that dethroned James II and throned William III- caused the collapse of the Dominion in the colonies

Salutary Neglect

period of time where the Navigation Laws were weakly enforced

Henry Hudson

English explorer- employed by the Dutch to explore the New World- claimed Hudson Bay

Dutch East and West India Companies

companies controlled by the Dutch to explore

New Netherlands

Hudson river area

New Amsterdam

New York City area- bought for a small amount- run for Dutch company- harsh rules

Patroonships

big feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them

Wall Street

derives name from wall built on Manhattan that protected them from Indians

Peter Stuyvesant

general in New Netherland- fought the Swedish and was forced to surrender New Amerterdam

Religious Society of Friends

official name for the Quakers

William Penn

founded the Pennsylvania colony for the Quakers

Tammany

indian chief who sold Pennsylvania to William Penn

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