What is about 80% of the extracellular fluid which occupies the spaces between tissue cells?
What is the 20% of the extracellular fluid, the liquid portion of the blood?
What are main contributors to the osmotic movement of water and fluid that balance depending primarily on its balance?
What is the area in the hypothalamus that governs the urge to drink?
What is a decrease in volume and increase in osmotic pressure of body fluids stimulating thirst?
A decrease in blood volume
What change stimulates the kidneys to release renin and promotes the formation of osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus and increased angiotensin II in the blood both stimulate thirst center in the hypothalamus?
The extent of urinary salt loss (NaCl)
In regulation of water and solute loss, what is the main factor that determines body fluid volume?
What are the 2 main solutes in extracellular fluid and in urine?
The extent of renal sodiume and chloride reabsorption
What do the following hormones regulate?
-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
What is the elevated urinary loss of sodium (and chloride) and water which decreases blood volume?
What is the major hormone that regulates water loss?
What is a major homeostatic challenge that keeps hydrogen ions level (pH) of body fluids in appropriate ranges?
What are substances that act quickly to temporarily bind hydrogen ions, remove highly reactive, excess hydrogen ions from solution but not from the body, and prevent rapid, drastic changes in the pH of the body fluid by converting strong acids and bases into weak acids and bases?
What is a condition in which arterial blood pH is below 7.35?
What is it called when arterial blood pH is higher than 7.45?
What is a change in blood pH that leads to acidosis or alkalosis?
What changes the secretion of hydrogen ions and re-absorption of hydrogen carbonate by the kidney tubules?