A chemical reaction in which large molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together.
The process in which water is used to spilt a substance into smaller particles.
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
The subunits of Carbohydrates. There are mono-, di-, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides = single sugars. Disaccharides = double sugars. Polysaccharides = starches.
Carbohydrates found both in food and in the body.
Metabolic fuel in the body, makes up some of humans diet and used to sweeten foods, and maintains energy.
Sugar and Respiration
During respiration sugars turn into ATP and is a more efficient energy source.
Sugars and ATP
ATP is made of three things. In the middle there is sugar (ribose) then there is adenine and lastly phosphate.The sugar is stored then released in the form of energy.
Complex carbohydrates that are composed of many sugars linked together.
The larger units of macromolecules (monomers combine to form this).
Starches along with sugars energize the body.
A carbohydrate, the chief constituent of the cell walls of plants, wood, paper and much more.
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipids are made of fatty acids which is made of fats oils and waxes in other words glycerol.
A sugar alcohol; one of the buliding blocks of fats. Its made from the saponification (to make fats into soap) of fats and fixed oils.
A large group of organic acids, especially those found in animal and vegetable fats and oils; building blocks of lipids.
Used as energy reserves, enery storage and source, insulation, structural component, chemical messengers, and protection.
Any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of one or more chains of amino acids.
Any of a large number of compounds found in living cells that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and join together to form proteins.
Amino Acid Structure
There are 20 different amino acid structures.
A letter used to represent an unspecified side chain in an organic compound. In this case a group of amino acids
The linear sequence of amino acids in a protein.
A chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amine group of the other molecule, thereby releasing a molecule of water. It is a dehydration synthesis.
The protein structure characterized by folding of the peptide chain into an alpha helix, beta sheet, or random coil. Ex:helical structure of double-stranded DNA.
A spiral structure in a macromolecule that contains a repeating pattern.
The three-dimensional structure of a protein or nucleic acid.
A process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose their tertiary structure and secondary structure by application of some external stress or compound, such as a strong acid or base.
The structure formed by the noncovalent interaction of two or more macromolecules.
The process of anabolic metabolism (simple substances converted into more complex compounds) that forms new proteins.
Protein is used for growth and repair. If you remove the water from the body, about half of the remaining weight (called the dry weight) is protein.
A substance formed by living cells that acts as a catalyst.
a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
something that causes an important event to happen.
The minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction.
Class of organic molecules that includes DNA and RNA.
The building blocks of nucleic acids.
An organic base compound that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine.
Adenine is a nucleobase purine base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA.
A base found in DNA and RNA and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with guanine in DNA.
A substance first obtained from guano; it is a nucleic base and pairs with cytosine in DNA and RNA.
DNA / Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Nucleic acid found on all living cell; carries the organism's hereditary infromation.
RNA / Ribonucleic Acid
The nucleic acid that contains ribos;acts in protien synthesis.
A base found in DNA (but not in RNA) and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with adenine.
A base containing nitrogen that is found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with adenine. Repleaces thymine in RNA.
The structure of DNA shows a variety of forms, both double-stranded and single-stranded.