← World History, Chapter 2, Sections 1 and 2 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All hieroglyphics an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds papyrus ancient paper made from stem of plant dynasty a powerful family or group of rulers that maintains its position or power for some time pharaoh the title of the ancient Egyptian kings. This means "great house". They had absolute power and served as judges, high priests and generals of the armies. empire a group of countries under a single authority polytheism belief in multiple Gods monotheism belief in a single God Rosetta Stone Black stone that contained carved messages in hieroglyphics, Greek and demotic. Led to deciphering of hieroglyphics. Menes King of Upper Egypt. United the kingdoms of lower and upper Egypt and created first egyptian dynasty (family of rulers). Hyksos Group of people who arrived in ancient Egypt from Asia and introduced new war tools. Hatshepsut First female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade and kept borders secure Thutmose III Hatshepsut's stepson; he brought Egypt to the heigth of its power Amenhotep IV early ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with sun worship (died in 1358 BC). Tried to bring social and religious change to Egypt. Ramses II king of Egypt between 1304 and 1237 BC who built many monuments and temples. Nile River The longest river in the world, stretching 4160 miles. South to North Direction water flows in Nile River cataract This is another word for rapids. There are six great cataracts in the Nile River. floods of Nile River This helped with farming. Crops were planted around these and they helped create fertile land. Nile Valley natural resources fertile soil, frost-free climate, the north wind, deposits of granite, sandstone and limestone. North Wind This allowed boats to travel both ways on the Nile River -- with the wind or with the current. Nile Valley deserts and seas These provided natural protection against invaders. Ishmus of Suez This formed a land bridge between Africa and Asia and permitted trade and the exchange of ideas. Two distinct cultures along Niles Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt Three kingdoms of Egypt Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom Old Kingdom Existing from 2680 BC to about 2180 BC. Society was split into 2 classes. Lower class was peasants and farmers, upper class the pharoh, royal family, priests, scribes and government officials. Nobles Another word for upper-class citizens. Middle Kingdom Existing from 2050 BC to about 1780 BC. Golden age of Egyptians. May have been destroyed by the arrival of the Hyksos (foreigners) from Asia. New Kingdom Existing from 1570 BC to 1080 BC. Hyksos were driven out of the country. Base was the city of Thebes. The united Egypt, built an empire and had one of the first known female rulers. Egypt's decline / Post-Imperial Era After Ramses the Great, invasions from the Sea Peoples weakened Egypt. By 300 BC rule in Egypt by Egyptians came to an end. scribes Egyptian clerks who read or wrote for those who could not do so for themselves - they often worked for the government. mummification A process to preserve a body to make life after death possible. caravans Groups of people traveling together for safety over long distances. Afterlife At first the Egyptians believed only pharaohs had this, then they believed everyone, even animals, had this. Book of the Dead A scroll placed in the tomb to serve as a guide to the afterlife. Crops of Egypt Wheat and barley for grain, flax for linen, cotton to weave into cloth. Egyptian trade This was tightly controlled by the government. Food was one thing exchanged. This was done by caravans and then by sea. Calendar Egyptian invented one of these based on the movement of the moon. Pyramid These were tombs for the pharaohs. Location of most pyramids Clustered along the west bank of the Nile. Great Pyramid This covers about 13 acres at its' base and was about 480 feet high. Egyptian architects and engineers These were some of the most skilled people in the world at the time. The used a system of ramps and levers to move heavy stones while building the pyramids. Egyptian art forms These included sculptures, paintings of everyday life on buildings. Egyptian math They used a number system based on ten which is similar to the decimal system used today. Egyptian medicine They knew a great deal about the human body. They could treat illnesses and also used "magic spells" and used herbs and medicines to treat people. Gods Egyptian people worshiped these. Sacred animals These included the cat, bull, crocodile and a type of beetle. Amon God which was identified with the sun. Osiris God who judged people after death.