Discovering Computers Ch. 9

Created by lisajones234 

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computer communications describes

a process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information

all types of computers and mobile devices serve as

sending and receiving devices in a communications system

collaborate

to work online iwth other users connected to a server

document management system

provides for storage and management of a company's documents

groupware

software the helps people work on projects or share information over a network

web services

describe standardized software that enable programmers to create applications that communicate with other remote computers

network

a collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and transmission media

advantages of using a network include

facilitating communications, sharing hardware, sharing data and information, sharing software, and transferring fudns

client/server network

one or more computers acts as a server while the other computers on the network are clients

server

aka host computer, controls access to network resources and provides a centralized storage area

clients

rely on the server for resources

peer-to-peer network

simple network that typically connects fewer than 10 computers, called a peer, that have equal responsibilitiies and capabilities

P2P

Internet peer-to-peer network onwhich users access each other's hand dissk directly and exchange files over the Internet

network standard

defines guidelines that specitfy the way computers access a medium, the types(s) of medium, the speeds on different types of networks, and the type of physical cable or wireless technology used

network communications standards include

Ethernet, token ring, TCP/IP, 802.11 (Wi-Fi), Bluetooth, UWB, IrDA, RFID, WiMAX, and WAP

Ethernet

specifies that no central computer or device on the network should control when data can be transmitted; that is, it allows nodes to contend for access to the network

token ring

requires devices to share or pass a special signal, called a token

TCP/IP

aka Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, divides data into packets

802.11

a series of standards for wireless devices

Bluetooth

uses short-range radio waves to transmit data

UWB

aka ultra-wideband, specifies how two USB devices use short-range radio waves to communicate at high speeds

IrDA

transmits data wirelessly via infrared light waves

RFID

uses radio signals for communications

WiMAX

aka 802.16, is a newer network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area

WAP

aka Wireless Application Protocol, allow wireless mobile devices to access the Internet

purpose of communications software is

it helps users establish a connection to another computer of newtwork, manages the transmission of data, instructions, and information, and provides an interface for users to communicate with one another

dial-up line

temporary connection that uses one or more analog telephone lines for communication

dedicated line

always-on connecton established between two communications devices

dedicated lines include

ISDN lines, DSL, FTTP, T-carries lines, and ATM

ISDN

a set of standards for digital transmission of data over standard copper telephone lines

DSL

transmits at fast speeds on existing standard copper telephone wiring

FTTP

aka Fiber to the Premises, used fiber-optic cable to provide extremely high-speed Internet access to a user's physical permanent location. Two types: FTTH (home) and FTTB (building)

T-carrier line

a long-distance digital telephone line that carries multiple signals over a single communications line

ATM

aka Asynchronous Transfer Mode, a service that carries voice data, video, and multimedia at extremely high speeds

communications device

hardware capable of trasmitting data between a sending device and a receiving device

modem

converts a computer's digital signals to analog signals for transmission over standard telephone lines

ISDN modem

transmits digital data to and from and ISDN line

DSL modem

transmits digital data to and from a DSL line

cable modem

aka broadband modem, a digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television network

wireless modem

uses the cell phone network to connect to the Internet wirelessly from mobile computers and devices

network card is

an adapter card, PC Card, ExpressCard module, USB network adapter, or flash card that enables a computer of device that does ot have built-in networking capability to access a network

wireless access point

allows computers and devices to transfer data wirelessly

router

connects multiple computers or other routers together and transmits data to its correct destination to the network

home network

connects multiple computers and devices in a home

Ethernet network

connects each computer to a hub with a physical cable

home powerline cable network

uses the same lines that bring electricity into the house

phoneline network

uses existing telephone lines in a home

most home networks use

a Wi-Fi network, which sends signals through the air at distances up to 1,500 feet in some configurations

transmission media

consists of materials or substances capable of carrying one or more signals

physical transmission media

use tangible materials to send communications signals

twisted-pair cable

consists of one or more twisted-pair wiires bundled together

coaxial cable

consists of a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers: an insulating material, a woven or braided metal, and a plastic outer coating

fiber-optic cable

consists of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals

wireless transmission media

send communications signals throught the air or space

infrared

aka IR, sends signals using infrared light waves

broadcast radio

distributes radio signals through the air over long and short distances

cellular radio

a form of broadcast radiot that is used widely for mobile communications

microwaves

radio waves that provide a high-speed signal transmission

communications satellite

a space station that receives microwave signals from and earth-based station, amplifies the signals, and broadcasts the signals back over a wide area

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