Ch 8: america secedes from the empire

Created by nnekadibe94 

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second continental congress

representative body of delegates from all 13 colonies. drafted the Declaration of Independence and managed the colonial war effort.(March 10, 1775)

battle of bunker hill

fought on the outskirts of Boston, on Breed's Hill, the battle ended in the colonial milita's retreat, though at a heavy coat to the British. (June 1775)

olive petition

conciliatory measure adopted by the continental congress, professing American loyalty and seeking an end to the hostilities. King George rejected the petition and proclaimed the colonies in rebellion. (July 1775)

richard montgomery

irish-born general formerly of the british army, pushed up the lake champlain route and captured Montreal. then tried to lead an assualt on Quebec with the help of the army of general benedict arnold, but it failed and he was killed. (1775)

benedict arnold

-American general that lead a surprised and captured the british garrison at Ticonderoga and Crown Point (May 1775)
-helped richard montgomery lead a failed assual on Quebec (Decemeber 1775).
-He turned a traitor in America when he plotted with the British to sell out the key stronghold of West Point, which commanded the Hudson River, for 6,300 pounds because he was greedy and felt his work to america was unappreciated. when the plot was discovered he fled to the british. (1780)

battle at moore's creek bridge

fought between the southern colonist and 1500 loyalist in North Carolina. the colonist were victorious

common sense

Thomas Paine's pamphlet urging the colonies to declare independence and establish a republican government. the widely read pamphlet helped convince colo

thomas paine

-radical from britain that convinced the american colonist that their true cause was independence rather than reconciliation with Britain.
-wrote Common Sense

richard henry lee

delegate of the continental congress from Virgina that introduced a resolution declaring the colonies to be independent. (June 7, 1776)

thomas jefferson

delegate that formed a committee to write a statement in support of richard henry lee's resolution. he drafted the declaration of independence, listing specific grievance against king george's government and expresses he basic principles that justified revolution

declaration of independence

formal pronouncement of independence drafted by thomas jefferson and approved by congress. the declaration allowed the americans to appeal for foreign aid and served as an inspiration for later revolutinary movements worldwide. (July 2, 1775)

loyalists

american colonists who opposed the Revolution and maintained their loyalty to the king; sometimes referred to as 'Tories'.

tories

colonial loyals who maintained their allegiance to the king. 60,000 american tories fought and died alongside the british army.

whigs

American rebels/Patriots that supported the movement of Independence. lead by George Washington during the revolution against the tories.

battle of long island

battle for control of New York. Britich troops overwhelmed the colonial militias and retained control of the city for most of the war. (august 1776)

battle of trenton

George Washington surprised and captured a garrison of sleeping German Hessians, raising the morale of his crestfallen army and setting the stage for his victory at Princeton a week later. (December 1776)

battle at princeton

George Washington's victoriuos attack on a small british detachment at princeton a week after victory at trenton.

general william howe

-George Washington adversary/ commander of British army.
-leader of the british at the battle of bunker hill; victory
-captured philadelphia and new york

general burgoyne

a british actor-playwriter-soldier had marched up to canada to link up with other force from the west and south. their purpose was to cut off new england from the rest of the colonies, but his troops were attacked at Saratoga by american troops lead by horatio gates and benedict arnold, forcing the british to surrender

baron von steuben

prussian drillmaster that trained the American soldiers how to fight after George washington retired

battle of saratoga

decisive colonial victory in upstate new york, which helped secure french support for the revolutionary cause.

horatio gates

general that attacked general burgoyne army at the battle of saratoga, causing buygoyne to surrender his entire command.

nathaniel greene

a quaker-reared tactician that distingusihed himself by his strategy of delay in the carolina campaign of 1781. he standed then retreated, exhaushting his foe. he lost battles but won campaigns, clearing most of the georgia and south carolina of british troops

charles cornwallis

-enemy of nathaniel greene that was exhausted by greene's standing and retreat tactic.
-general of british army that defeated and forced to surrender army to george washington at Yorktown; the last major battle of the revolutionary war

george rogers clark

leader of a group of patriots that captured a series of british forts in the illinois country to gain control of parts of the vast Ohio territory

admiral de grasse

french admiral that operated a powerful fleet in the west indies, advised the americans that he was free to join with them in an assualt on Cornwallis at Yorktown

john jay

american peace negotiator from new york that helped negotiate the treaty of paris

treaty of paris of 1783

peace treaty signed by britain and the united states ending the revolutionary war. the british formally recognized american independence and ceded territoy east of the mississippi while the americans, in turn, promised to restore loyalist property and repay debts to british creditors. (1783)

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