Was a widely used practice of when clerics especially higher ecclesiastics held many benefices or offices but seldom visited them. Instead they collected revenues and hire poor priests paying him a fraction of the income of a local church.
Antoine du Prat diplomat of French King Louis XII who as an archbishop of Sens who entered his cathedral for the first time at his own funeral.
Chancellor thomas Wolsey under King Henry VIII was archbishop of York for 15 years before he set foot in his own diocese.
Italian officials in papal curia held benfices in England, Spain, and Germany and those nations paid for the Italian priests.
Cardinal Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros
Spanish cardinal who visited religous houses, ecnouraged monks to uphold rules, and set high standards for clergy training.
Bretheren of the Common Life
In the late 14th, century the Bretheren was a group of pioous lay people who lived in simplicity carrying out many Gospel teachings such as feeding the hungry, providing clothing, and helping the sick. they tried to make religion a personal experience. They stressed the centrality of scriptuires in spiritual life. In the 15th century they had founded houses in the Netherlands, central Germany, and Rhineland.
The Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis
Thomas a Kempis and the Imitation of Christ
Part of the Brethern of Common Life and he wrote the "Imitation of Christ" which became a popular reading among laypeople as it urgde Chiristians to take Christ as a model and seek simple lives for perfection.
Pope Julius II
Ecumenical Council- the Pope set this up which met in Rome from 1512-1517 as Bishops and theolgians tried to reform the church through higher education of the clergy, stopicng beruactatic orruption in papacy, and suggesting dogma reforms.
The swiss guard was formed during this time.
Pope Innocent VII
He was a corrupt pop who made the papal court the gossip of europe as he fathered numerous children.
Pope Alexander VI
He was very corrupt and publicly acknowledged his mistresses and children. Such as Lucrezia Borgia and his son Cesare Borgia.
He started the Reformation and helped the spread of Protestantism across Europe. He was born at Eisleben in Saxony as the son of a copper miner. He went to school at the University of Erfurt. Though his father wanted him to study law he became a friar after frightened during a thunder storm entering the Monastery of Augustinian Friars at Erfurt in 1505.
1507 he became a priest and then earned adoctrate of theology. From 1512-1546 he served as a professor of scriptures at University of Wittenburg. He was very religous and a devout Christian, though he saw physical salavation as a medieval way and he doubted the monastic way of life.
John Staupitz- Told Martin to Study saint Paul's Letters and Luther soon learned a better view of the Pauline letter and Christian dogma. He came to final conclusion that salvation does not equal external observanecs and penanec but instead simple faith in christ.
Posted the Ninety Five Theses in 1517.
Disputed with John Eck denouncing the Papacy.
The Papacy responded with a letter Condemning Luthers propostion and threateheing to excommunicate him. So Luther publicly burned the letter. Even though in 1521 the excommunication was supposed to by final, 9/10th of germany cried for Luther in Revolution.
Summoned at the Diet of Worms in 1521.
Confession of Augsburg.
"On Christian Liberty"
German Peasant Revolts- Luther wanted to preven rebellion and initially sideed with the peasants see "An Admonition to Peace". Though he soon wrote against "against the Murderous thieving Hordes of the Peasants". Despite peasants sough support form him he denied it as he said freed did not mean oppisiont to legally established secular powers.
Luther gained alot of fame through the printing press as it rapidly reproduced his idease. Erik Erikson said Luther's language can be parallel before Shakespeare. 1523 Luther translated the New Testament into German. Hymns ("A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"), Psalms, and Luthers 2 catechisms ( "Longer Catechism"- brief sermons on articles of faith "Shorter Catechism" - concise explanation of doctrine in Q and A format were basics of religous knowledge.
Albert was the archbishop of Magdeburg, adminstrator of the see of Halberstadt and the archibishop of Mainz = pluralism which required papal exemption. Pope Leo X who needed money for the construction fo the St. Peters Basillica was helped by by Albert who borrowed money from the Fuggers a wealthy banking family of Augsburg to pay for the exemption. Then Leo authorized Albert to sell Indulgences to pay back the Fuggers. However, in Wittenburg (In Saxony) the seling of the indulgenecs was forbidden. Nevertheless, the Wittenburg people went into Jutenburg in Thuringia to buy indulgenecs. Albert highered John Tetzel to sell indulgences.
The Dominacan Friar, Tetzel succesfully advertized the Indulgences making them a big hit. He advertised people could also buy indulgences for deceased families. He mad special prices for specific sins.
Ninety Five Theses (1517)
Luther was trobled by the publics niaveness to buy the Indulgences and wrote a letter to Albert, "the Ninety Five Theses on the Power of Indugences". he said indulgences undermined the seriousness of penance, competed with Gospel preachings, and down played the importance of Charity.
He also posted these on the door of the Church at Wittenburg castle (according to Philipp Melanchthon) By the end of the year they had been translated into German and spread across europe for academic debate.
From 1518-19 Luther studied the history of the papacy and held a huge public disupute with the catholic debater John Eck. Luther denied the authority of the pope and probablyiy of a genral council. He also said the Council of Constance had erred by buringin Jan Hus.
Diet of Worms (1521)
Charles V called Luther to appear at the Diet of Worms where he ordered Luther to recant. However Luther replied he wouldnt as nothing in the scriptures gave him reason to. Charles the V called Luther an outlaw however Duke Frederick of Saxony protected him.
Swiss Humanist and Erasmus admireer Ulrich Zwingli introduced the reformation in Switzerland. Zwingli secured him self as the Peoples Priest at the New Minister in Zurich. In 1519 he announced he would preach not from Church prescrived reading but from Erasmus's New Testament. Seeing scriptures as pure words of God and Christian life. He attacked infulgences, Masss, monasticism, and clerical celibacy and had strong support of the people.
However, Zwingli disagreed with Luther on some issues notably the Eucharists. The Colloquy of Marburg in 1529 fialed to unite Protestentan differences. Pre
Confession of Augsburg (1530)
Lutheran protestsnts officially started after Luthers work in sorting the basic tenets of his new church from 1520-30. Ernst Troelltsan a german student of socialogy of religion said Protestantism is a modification of Catholicism with questioning and reason.
Differences between Roman Catholic and Lutheran beliefs
Catholics said salvation is achieved by both faith and good works. Lutherans saw salvation through faith only.
Traditionally authority rests both in Bible and in traditional teaching of the church.
Lutherans: "Sola Scriptura" authority in Word of God in Bible alone as interpreted by an individual. Luther urged each person read and reflect on the scriptures.
Questions of Church
Luther: Remphasized Catholic teaching that church consisted of entire commuity of Christian believers. Medeival chruch men however saw church with the clergy.
Highest Form of Christian Life
Medieval- stressed monastic religous life as superioir
Luther: argued lal vocations have equal merit.
Luther saw church as spirtual priesthood of all believers not fixed in one person and stressed the invisibilty of the heirarchy.
Catholics however practices a clerical hierarchial instution under the Pope.
Catholics have 7 sacrements while Luther saw 3 ( baptism, penance, and Eucharists or Lord's Supper).
Luther: Consubstantiation (also supported by Zwingli and Calvinists)
Two late medieval developments prepared people for Luther. One was peoples resentment of clerical priveledges such as in land and money. The second was through the critics condemnation of the ireggularity and poor quality of sermons. In response to this prosperous merchants established preacherships where preachers wer highly educated and required to carry out 100 sermons a year at a minumum of 45 minutes each. This can be viewed as a link to German preachers accpeting protestantism in 1517 in Stuttgart, Routlin, Eisnenach, and Jena. Protestants supported worship where the sermon became the central part of the sermon and not the Eucharist.
German Peasant Revolts
In the country side of Germany peasants support of Lutheran was everywhere. In Luthers first clause of "On Christian Liberty" he said a christian man is subject of none and free contributing to social unrest as in the 15th cennury eoconomic conditions were gennerall worse especially with a crop failure in 1523 and 24. So peasants released the Twelve Articles. Luther wanted to preven rebellion and he sided with the peasants a tfirst in "an Admonition to Peace (1525) where he blasted the lords, blaming their greeed as a cause for rebellion though he said nothing justified use of armed forces. the revolts broke out first near the Swiss Frontier then to Swabia, Thrunigia, Rhineland, and Saxony. Luther's slogans were chanted and the rebellion sought support from Luther even though he denied it in "Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the Peasants" stating that revelion would hasten civilized society and said that every soul should be subject to the State. In 1525 the nobility crushed the rebellion killing 75,000 peasants. The revolts strenghtened the lay rules and peasant economic conditions moderately improved.
Twelve Articles (1525)
Represenative of Swabian Peasants met at the city of Memmingen. They drw up these articles condemning lay and ecclestiasticla lords and complaining of the agrariarian crises. They complained of the nobles seigies n common lands and unjust death duties. They believed demands conformed to the Scriptures and cited Luther.
Lutheranism and Women
"All vocations have equal merit" which gave dignity to domestic tasks of women. Luther exalted the home which Luther saw as the domain of the wife were there could be virtues of love, tnederness, reconciliation, etc. He abolished private confessions to a priest and created schools for girls and boys to become literate. He prized marriage.
Golden Bull of 1350
In Germany, this legalized the long existing government by aristocratic federation whree each of 7 electors gained lvirual power over his terrritory and coted to choose the Holy Roman emperor, ending disputed elections and reducing central authority of the emperor.
Maximlillan I of the Austrian House of Habsburg marries mary of Burgundy extending the Habsburbgs land to the French Duchy Burgundy and Burdundian Netherlands.This marriage angered the French who saw Burgundy as a a French Territory. Louis XI reapetedly fought for Burgundian Netherlands until he forced Maimllian I to accept the Treaty of Arras in 1482. However Habrburgs never gave up their claim on the land so the warefare continued. Also, within Germany Austrian resnemtent grew sharing an alliance with the French. Their son Phlip of BUrgundy married JOaan of castile from Ferdinan and Isabella of Spain which then gave birth to Charles V.
Inherits a huge conglemorate of land and ends up taking Spanish lands, New World possesions, and Itlaian cities, Sicily, and Sardinia along with the Habsburgs lands. His Italian Advisors, Grand Chancellor Gattinara said he was on a mission by God to a world monarchy and he believed in this. Charles saw his international intersts before the need for reform in Germany by refusing to give up power in attempts of reforming the judiciary, army, and executive power. In 1521 he called for the Diet of Worms for Luther to recant as he was a huge defendor of catholicism. Because of this and the steady flow of protestantism throughout the land man religous issues and economic issues comibined into religous wars across Germany making the protestant movement a political disaster for Germany. Also the disentegration of imperial power in Germany can be linked to his lack of care for consituional problmes, preocupations with foreign territory, and lack of resources to oppose Protestantsism. Also, turkish threats from the Ottomon empire kept him from effectivley acting against proestants as his brother Ferdinand needed Portestant support against the Turks in Vienna. From 1521-55 5 times Charles went to war with the Valois king of France over the Habsurbs issues mostly fightihnn in Germany as the french tried to keep the german states divided.
1527 Charles sacks Rome after Clement VII supports Francis I from France in the disuputes over Italy after the French saw a huge defeat in the Battle of Pavia (1525). Charles then sacked Rome and the Pope ending the HIGH RENAISSANCE after the papacy stopped supporting the Germans.
1555 Charles agrees to Peace of Augsburg.
"Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation" (1520)
In 1520 Martin Luther said that unless the princes destroyed papal power in Germany, reform would be impossible as he urged princes to confiscate ecclesiastical wealth, indulgences, dispensations, and clerical celibacy. He said it was the Princes public duty to moral reform of the church. His basiss of his argument was the papacy's financial exploitation of germany which stirred up patriotism and strong support for Luther. Basically protestantism then meant for people legal confiscation of framlands, expensive monasteries and shrines. Many German princes embraced the new faith for to steadily taking back clerical lands and secularizing church property while acepting Lutheran doctrines. And also Despite the Diet of Worms many German princes did not condemn Luther and his teachings because of this financial connection.
Peace of Augsburg 1555
Charles agrees to the agreement acceptiion g the status qquo officially recognizing Lutheranism. Under this each prince is permitted to determine territory's relgion. North and central Germany became Luther as Southern Germany remained Catholic. This however was not a freedom of religion as princes and town council created mandatory state churches and dissident were forced into accepting the state church.
Calvinism and "The Institutes of the Christian religion"
John Calvin who's branch of protestantism impacted the future generations of society in 1533 saw htat God had called on him to reform the church. So he went to Geneva and in 1541 worked to create a Christian Society soon to become the 16th century model for other protestant communities. See Genevan Consistory. In the "Institutes of the Christian Relgion" first released 1536 and then in 1559 he saw a complete omnipotence of God and total weakness of human. In this what he beleived as predestination, there is no belief in free will, men and women cannot work to get salvation and god has already decided who will be saved or not. This motivated people to go underhardship in struggle against evil. Calvinists called women for church participation heling them belong. Though in the end it did not differ from miedevval scholastics. The proestants stressed marriage and husbands authority in domestic settings. However before well-to-do protestant women aided the poor through charity.
Calvin saw Geneva in high standard of marality with complete mastery of scriptures and eleoquence. The Consistory was a watch dog of every man under 12 men and the pastors. calvin was the permenant moderator. the looked to see everyone lived orderly in life. They had very strict regulation comperated to government punishing all normal and moral crimes. However, serious crimes were handled by civil authoriites who sometimes undr the apporval of the Consistory used torture. See Michael Servetus.
Spanish Humanist who gained fame for his publication denying Christian dogma of trinity. When he escaped to Geneva he was there arrested then burned at the stake as fathers saw his ideas as dangerous to public morality under his denial of child Baptism and the trinity.
A noble woman with influene and power who Calvin called for support.
Anabaptists believed that only adults could make a free choice on faith aned entering christiany. They saw no scriptural basis for batizing infants and wanted to rebatize believer batized as infants. Took the gospel and Luthers teachings as absolute at first. IMPORTANT: They believed that christian community and state were not identical as they believed in religous toleration. They admitted women to the ministry. Also, they were pacificts and a a MINORITY attracting the poor, unemployed, from depressed urban areas. Their absolute pacifism and distinction between state and community lead to a hatred of them from others. Rulers of Swiss and Germany saw links in heresy to economic dislocation. Civil authoiries saw this differenec as a civil disturbance. In Saxony, Strabourg, and Swiss cities Anabaptists were banished and executed. Anabaptists however influenced Quakers, congreationalists, Baptists, etc.
Henry VIII wanted to end his marriage to Catherine of Aragon after falling inlove with Anne Bleyn in 1527. In their marriage Julius II had coverd up the fact that Catherine was previously married to her brother Arthur. When, saw the rule of his daughter from Catherine, Mary as resulting wit hanarchy he petitioned to Pope Clement VIII saying his marriage never existed. However, with the pope focused on the Habsburg Valois struggle he saw that siding with Henry would lead to confirm the Lutheran thoughts in Germany that the papacy truly was corrupt. So Henry, removes the english Church from papal jurisdiction. 1536 Anne Boleyn was behaded after failing to bring a male child and then parliament called Annes daughter Elizabeth illegitamte. Under his third wife Jane Seymour, Henry earned his son Edward but died. Henry moved onto 3 more wives. In 1547, parliament relegitamized mary and Elizabeth fixing the succesion to the son then daughters. Under the nationalization of the church the new lands acquired required the development of bureacracy under reforming the kings household, council, secretariats, and the Exchqior. Also a New Department of State was setup. Henry was succedded by Edward VI, Mary Tudor, and then Elizabeth.
Church of England
Throughout the early 16th century the English church was in a health condition as teachings of tradional Catholicism were reiterated, the clergy was better educated than Italian clergy, and the religin of the clergy, elite, and english people was th same. However, Henry VIII personal problems along with religous and economic problems lead to the English Reformation.1533, Henry VIII separates the Church of England from the papacy. 1535 Chief Minister Thomas Cromwell under Henry decided to end the English monasteries destoryoing the lands. Henry's popular support is unkown as in the Pilgramage of Grace in 1536 massive multiclass rebellions took place and were betrayed after executing them after a "truce" also there were more seirous rebellions in East Anglia and West under his theoligically catholic chruch.Under the rule of Edward VI he emphasized strong Protestant ideas. ARCHBISHOP CRANMER siplified the liturgy by inviting protestant theolgians to England and also preparing the first "Book of Common Prayer" (1549). Under Mary Tudor, there was a sharp move back to Cahtolicism from 1553-58. She marrie dher cousin, Philip of Spain which was an unpopular move. She executed hundreds of Protestants and many moved out. Under Elizabeth, religous stability starts. Returning protestants who soo became the Puritans clashed with the English Catholics wanting to keep catholicism. Elizabeth chose a mid course as she did not care about what peopole believed as long sa it was quiet. She became the "Supreme Governor of the Church of England." See Elizabethan Settlement. Under Elizabeth the Anglican Chruch became the Churhc of england and was moved in a moderatley Protestant direction.
Act of Restraints of Appeals (1533)
English Parliament devlares King's ultimatge power and sovereignty in England making the crown the highest authority.
Supremacy Act (1534)
declared the King, the Head of Chruch of England. this sparked a huge debate as John Fischer attacked the clergy for cowardice by not fighting the King. Also, Thomas More resigned his chancellorhsip and then they were both beheaded with other dissedents.
Act of Submission of Clergy (1535)
1535 Clergy must submit to the monarch.
Laws from parliament during Elizabeths reigh as she required conformity to Church of England and uniformity in ceremonies. Everyone had to attend services or else they would be fined.
39 Articles (1563)
Summary in 39 statements of the basic tenets of the chruch of England by a group of bishops.
Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Scotland's monarchy waas weak and nobles competed for power. King James V and his daugheter Mary, Queen of Scots OPPOSED reform. However the novles supported it. See John Knox. Presbyters not bishops governed Presbyterianism when it was formed in 1560. Their beliefs were in strict calvinists doctrines and greater emphasis on preachings. and they kep close relations with the English Puritan.
Was a fearless preacher who dominated the reform in Scotland. He sought to shape Scotlands church after the Calvinists church in Geneva. In 1560 he persuaded reform minded parliament to end papal authority. Mass was ablosished and then the Presybyterian Chruch of Scotland was created. The "Book of Common Order" (1564) was a liturgical directory.
Lutheranism in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
Luther state churches were spread across in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. The danish held control over Sweden and Norway. However, in 1520 the Swedish revolted under Gustavus Vasa and Olaus Petri translated the New Testament ito swesish and organized the Lutheran chruch.
In Denmark, King Christian III of Denmark and Norway secularized the church and adopted Lutheranism.
Eastern Europe Reformation
Bohemia = Lutheranism and Utraquist!----> Then Catholicism
The Czech saw German economic and religous dominations and corruption of Roman church. 1500 most Czechs adopted John Hus's ultraquist postion and geraman also obeyed this Catholic tenet. Because Luther strongly aproved of this Luthreanism spread among Germans in Bohemia. King Ferdinand I of Bohemia (catholic) had to also go along utraquism to become king. Also, the novility aided Lutheranism as it opposed the Habsburgs which helped the spread of Protestantism in Germany. Successors, Maximlian II and Rodolf IV had more tolerant religous policies, however, Counter Reformation acts struck this down with a Catholic revial in Bohemia.
Poland = Calvinism --> THEN Catholicism
1500 Poland and Lithuania united in a dynastic Union. The monarchy was weak because the 2 territories had seperate self governing bodies and thus had to give into the nobility (szlachta). Luther's ides spread first to Baltic towns then to University of Cracow. However he was faced with anti-germanism and King Sigismund I bann of Luther's teachings in Poland limiting Lutheranism. NO LUTHERANISM! However Calvinism was apeallin in Poland because it originated in France not Germany. Jan Laski converted to Calvinism with other poles. However there was no united oppositon to catholicism due to diversity. Stanislaus Hosius from the Council of trent pressed for reform within Catholic churhc spreading in 1650 Catholicism to Poland.
Hungary Condemned Lutheranism --> Protestantism--> Catholic Revival
1521 hungrian students coming back form Wittenburg brought Lutheranism and sympathy developed for it at the court of Buda. Howver, concern about German heresy lead to an attack on Lutheran at 1523 hungarian diet. 1526 Mohacs in southern Hungary, were killed as Ottoman Sultan Suleiman defeated the Hungarians killing King Louis II. The Hungarian Kingdom then divided in 3 parts under the Attomans, Habsburgss, and Jonas Zapolya. Hungary then submitted mainly to Protestantism until 1699 with catholic restoration and Ottaman withdrawal.
1517- sought renewal through the stimulation of a new spirtual fervor.
1540s there was a reactio nto the spread of Proetsantism as they tried to return dissidents to Church fearing dissident infections of society and if not believed in expelletion. there was an idea of a Church General Council, which in Spain Germany and France wanted to reform the beuracracy. However the Pope was warned against the council. See the Council of Trent.
Council of Trent (1545-63)
Sought reform and to secure reconciliation with Protestants.
Charles V opposed speaking against the Lutherans fearing popularity loss. French kings worked against reconciliation of Catholics and Lutherans to keep the German states divided. The conciliar theory was stressed trying to weaken the papacy however in the end the council required Papal Approval.
Gave equal validity to scriptures and to tradition as relgious authority. Reafirmed 7 sacrements and transubstantiaition. rejected Luther and Calvin Positions. Tridentine required bishops to reside in own dioces. Supressed pluralism and simony, forbade sale of indulgences. Also concubines were forbiden. Bishops revieed absolute authority of clergy. Education of clergy was mandatory. Tametsi said that a valid marriage must have a public anoouncment of consent to witnesses and parish priest.
HOWEVER: No reconciliation with protestantism, delayed reform, though laid 4 centuries of solid catholic spirtual basis.
Pope Paul III (1534-39)
Cardinal Alexander Farnes promised to German councils that if he was elected pope he would bring a council. So he won and he appointed reformists crdinal like Gian Pietro Caraffa. Created the Inquisition in the Papal States and called for a council meeting at Trent. He also established in 1542 the Congregation of the Holly Office with power over the Roman Inquisition
Ursuline Order Angela Merici
Undre Angela Merici the Ursilin order attained great fame for education of women. Her daughter worked for many years amon the poor and uneducated in Brescia in northern Italy. in 1535 they were esablished to combat heresy through education by re-chrisitanizing society by training future wives and mothers. This was incredible as the Council of Trent ended active women ministries. 1565 they were officially recognized spreading catholicism reformation to France and the New World.