Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Functional Classification of Joints is based on

the size of the joint
the amount of movement allowed by the joint
whether a joint cavity is present
the location of the joint
A) amount of movement allowed by the joint

Which of the following does NOT represent a structural classification of joints

synovial
fibrous
diarthrosis
cartilaginous
A) Diarthrosis, which refers to a freely movable joint, represents a functional classification.

Which of the following refers to a joint that is immovable?

synovial
synarthrosis
amphiarthrosis
diarthrosis
A) Synarthroses are immovable joints and include sutures and syndesmoses

Know the three types of fibrous joints and what a joint containing that type would look like

Suture, Syndesmosis, and Gomphosis

All three joints in the below figure are classified as ______.

Picture of Suture, Syndesmosis, and gomphosis joints.
a) Fibrous connected by dense fibrous tissue to form a joint lacking a cavity

Which of these joints would be functionally classified as diarthrotic

again pictures of each of the three fibrous joints ABC then D none of the above
A) D none of the fibrous joints are diarthrotic (freely moving).

Which of the following is true regarding the structure indicated by the arrow in the joint depicted in A?

A is a picture of a fibrous joint, a suture on the skull. It is formed by a synovial membrane.
It is classified as amphiarthrotic.
It is composed of hyaline cartilage.
It becomes ossified late in adult development.
A) becomes ossified late in adult development

The arrows in B and C point to structures that can both be described as a

a picture of a syndesmosis and gomphosis joint. The arrow is pointing to where the bones are held together in the first case and what is holding the peg in the hole in the 2nd case.
bone
ligament
muscle
tendon
A) ligaments hold peg in and syndesmosis joints together

An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is _______

the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends
the radius and ulna along its length
between the vertebrae
between the humerus and the glenoid cavity
a) the radius and ulna along its length

know what a synchondroses joint and symphyses joint look like

Identify picture showing synchondroses (epiphyseal and joint between 1st rib and sternum) and symphyses (pubic, vertebra) joints

Again same 4 pics of same joints. These joints are all examples of ________ type joints.

fibrous joints
cartilaginous joints
synovial joints
A) cartilaginous joints (hyaline and/or fibro-cartilage)

The joints indicated by the arrows in C and D are distinguished from those indicated in A and B by the presence of which of the following tissues?

C&D are a vertebre and Public Symphysis
A&B are

fibro-cartilage
spongy bone
compact bone
elastic cartilage
A) Fibro - cartilage

Which of the following statements regarding the joints between the ribs and sternum is correct?
a)The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synchondroses; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are symphyses.
b) The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synarthrotic; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are diarthrotic. This joint is labeled B in the figure.
c) All joints between the ribs and sternum are classified as cartilaginous joints.
d) All joints between the ribs and sternum are classified as synovial joints

A) The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synarthrotic; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are diathrotic.
The joints formed between the ribs and sternum, with the exception of the first rib, are diarthrotic synovial joints

Which of the following are CORRECTLY paired?
a)syndesmoses: bony edges interlock
b) gomphoses: articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing cavity
c) suture: bones connected exclusively by ligaments
d) synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones

A synchondrosis is a plate of hyaline cartilage that unites the bones. Epiphyseal plates are examples of synchondroses.

Using the structural classification, what type of joint is the epiphyseal plate
synarthrotic joint
amphiarthrotic joint
cartilaginous joint
fibrous joint

The epiphyseal plate is a cartilaginous joint-a hyaline cartilage "growth plate" between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone

Be able to match joint term to definition
suture, Gomphosis, Symphysis, synchondrosis

Symphysis Bones united by fibrocartilage
Suture Joint found only in the skull
Gomphosis Tooth in socket
Synchondrosis Bones united by hyaline cartilage

name In synovial joint - ligament, articular cartilage, periosteum, joint cavity, fibrous layer, synovial membrane, last 2 inside articular capsule

...

functional classification of the illustrated joint with regard to its range of movement (picture of same synovial joint)
amphiarthrotic
synarthrotic
diarthrotic
synovial

Synovial joints are considered to be freely movable and therefore described as diarthrotic.

Which structure is composed primarily of dense irregular connective tissue (Picture of synovial joint w/ pointers at ABCD)

Structure D forms the fibrous capsule surrounding the joint cavity

Structure C and D collectively form which of the following
articular cartilage and synovial membrane

articular capsule

The generalized model for the structural type of joint illustrated shares the LEAST number of features with which of the following? (picture of synovial joint)
knee joint
intercarpal joint
intervertebral joint
elbow joint

The joints between vertebrae lack a joint cavity and are classified as sympheses, not synovial joints

Which joint in the figure is capable of multiaxial movement?
Shoulder, radioulnar, thumb, knuckle, Intercarpal, interphalangeal

Ball-and-socket joints, as found in the shoulder and hip, are capable of multiaxial movement in all three planes.

Which joint in the above figure is limited to nonaxial gliding movements?
Shoulder, radioulnar, thumb, knuckle, Intercarpal, interphalangeal

The intercarpal and carpometacarpal joints of the palm (and equivalents in the foot) form plane joints that allow for only short nonaxial gliding movements

Which joint moves only by a uniaxial movement around its own axis?
Shoulder, radioulnar, thumb, knuckle, Intercarpal, interphalangeal

The radioulnar joint is a pivot joint in which movement of the ulna is limited to rotation along its own long axis.

Which of the following is a hinge joint?
Shoulder, radioulnar, thumb, knuckle, Intercarpal, interphalangeal

Interphalangeal joints are hinge joints capable of uniaxial angular movement

The thumb joint indicated by C mediates which of the following special movements?
opposition
elevation
dorsiflexion
inversion

opposition Opposition is the movement which allows the touching of the thumb to the tip of each finger.

Most joints of the body are classified as ________ joints
fibrous
cartilaginous
synovial
immovable

Most joints of the body are classified as synovial joints

Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to joint stability
amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity
amount of muscle tone applied to tendons that cross the joint
shape of the articulating surfaces
number and positioning of reinforcing ligaments

The amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity is not a factor that contributes to joint stability. The major role of synovial fluid is to lubricate the joint surfaces of freely movable (synovial) joints.

The synovial membrane ________
lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule
reinforces the joints so that the opposing bones are not pulled apart
covers and protects the articulating bone surfaces
functions as a cushion between opposing bones

The synovial membrane lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule and produces synovial fluid, which serves as a lubricant

Synovial fluid does NOT ________
reduce friction between the articular cartilages
prevent the articulating bones from dislocating
nourish the cartilage cells in the joint
contain phagocytic cells

Synovial fluid does not contribute to joint stability, and thus does not prevent the articulating bones from dislocating (being pulled apart)

Which of the following is one difference between bursae and tendon sheaths?
Bursae serve as cushioning fat pads between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths reduce friction between adjacent structures.
Bursae are only found in synovial joints, while tendon sheaths are only found in fibrous joints.
Bursae contain a thin film of synovial fluid, while tendon sheaths lack synovial fluid altogether.
Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons

Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons. Both bursae and tendon sheaths are associated with synovial joints, both reduce friction between adjacent structures, and both contain a thin film of synovial fluid.

Which of the following is CORRECTLY paired
nonaxial movement: no movement
biaxial joint: permits movement in one plane and around one axis
multiaxial movement: movement in all three planes and around all three axes
uniaxial joint: permits only slipping or gliding movements

Multiaxial joints, such as the shoulder and hip, permit movement in all three planes and around all three axes

Extension is an example of a(n) ________ movement
angular
gliding
nonaxial
rotational

Angular movements increase or decrease the angle between articulating bones. Extension is an angular movement that increases the angle between the articulating bones. Angular movements may occur in any plane of the body and include flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction.

When a person makes a pinching motion with their thumb and forefinger they are performing a movement called ________
dorsiflexion
retraction
supination
opposition
elevation

The saddle joint between metacarpal I of the thumb and the trapezium allows a movement called opposition-the action taken when you touch your thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand. It is opposition that makes the human hand such a fine tool for grasping and manipulating objects.

The shoulder and hip are examples of ________.
pivot joints
plane joints
condylar joints
hinge joints
ball-and-socket joints

The shoulder and hip are examples of ball-and-socket joints.

Synovial joints are classified into six main categories based on ________.
their location
their size
the amount of synovial fluid found in the joint cavity
the shape of their articular surfaces

Based on the shape of their articular surfaces, which in turn determine the movements allowed, synovial joints can be classified into six major categories: plane, hinge, pivot, condylar (or ellipsoid), saddle, and ball-and-socket joints.

Which ligament would one tap to generate the knee-jerk reflex
tibial collateral ligament
oblique popliteal ligament
anterior cruciate ligament
patellar ligament

By tapping the patellar ligament, which connects the patella (kneecap) to the tibia, one can test the knee-jerk reflex. Stretching the patellar ligament in turn stretches the quadriceps tendon and muscle, triggering the stretch reflex that results in contraction of the quadriceps and extension (jerking) of the knee.

Which of the following is NOT a muscle of the rotator cuff?
subscapularis muscle
biceps brachii muscle
infraspinatus muscle
supraspinatus muscle
teres minor muscle

The biceps brachii is not one of the four rotator cuff muscles.

The MAIN contributors to hip joint stability are __________
the bulky hip and thigh muscles surrounding the joint
the rotator cuff muscles
the deep socket of the joint and strong capsular ligaments
the muscle tendons that cross the joint

The main contributor to hip joint stability is the deep socket of the joint and the strong capsular ligaments. Joints that have shallow sockets, such as the shoulder and jaw (temporomandibular) joints, are relatively unstable and more easily dislocated.

People who grind their teeth are likely to damage their ________.
glenohumeral joint
temporomandibular joints
tibiofemoral joint
coxal joint

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders often afflict people who grind their teeth, but can also result from jaw trauma or poor occlusion of the teeth. The TMJ is formed by the articulation between the temporal bone and mandible.

The origin of a muscle is attached to the movable bone.
True
False

The origin is attached to the immovable or less movable bone; the insertion is attached to the movable bone.

If a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is not properly repaired, the consequences could include the inability to prevent ________.
medial rotation of an extended knee
lateral rotation of an extended knee
forward sliding of the tibia on the femur
forward sliding of the femur

The ACL extends from the anterior intercondylar notch of the femur to the anterior intercondylar eminence of the tibia. This ligament prevents the tibia from being pushed too far anterior relative to the femur.

To realign an anteriorly dislocated Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a physician must push the mandible inferiorly and posteriorly in order to move the mandibular condyle past the temporal bone's ________.
mandibular fossa
articular tubercle
articular capsule
articular disc

A tubercle is a round nodule or bumpy outgrowth from the main body of a bone. This tubercle forms the anterior boundary of the mandibular fossa

Which of the following is NOT a structural feature of synovial joints?
a fluid-filled joint cavity
bone ends united by fibrocartilage
bone ends covered with hyaline cartilage
reinforcing ligaments

In synovial joints, bone ends are covered, but not united with cartilage. Hyaline (articular) cartilage covers the bone ends. The fibrocartilage found in some synovial joints, such as the knee joint, provides additional cushioning between opposing bone ends.

What is the most important stabilizing factor for most synovial joints?
synovial fluid
muscle tone
the shape of the articular surfaces
the size of the reinforcing ligaments

For most synovial joints, especially the knee and shoulder, the muscle tendons that cross the joint are the most important stabilizing factor. These tendons are kept taut at all times by muscle tone, constant, partial contraction of their muscles.

Which type of joint allows opposition?
saddle joint
hinge joint
condylar joint
pivot joint

The saddle joint between metacarpal I and the trapezium allows a movement called opposition of the thumb-the action taken when you touch your thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand. It is opposition that makes the human hand such a fine tool for grasping and manipulating objects.

Which joint in the body is most susceptible to sports injuries?
shoulder
elbow
knee
wrist

the knees are most susceptible to sports injuries because of their high reliance on non-articular factors for stability and the fact that they carry the body's weight. The knee can absorb a vertical force equal to nearly seven times body weight. However, it is very vulnerable to horizontal blows, such as those that occur during blocking and tackling in football and in ice hockey.

Which joint has sacrificed stability to provide great freedom of movement?
elbow
ankle
shoulder
knee

shoulder joint, stability has been sacrificed to provide the most freely moving joint in the body. The articulating bones provide minimal joint stability because of the size and "fit" of the articulating surfaces. The major stabilizing forces are soft tissue, in particular the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles (via muscle tone).

In a sprain, the ________ of a joint are stretched or torn.
muscles
bones
tendons
ligaments

In a sprain, the ligaments that reinforce a joint are stretched or torn

Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?
tendonitis: inflammation of the joint
osteoarthritis: chronic degenerative joint disease
gout: inflammation of the tendons
bursitis: urate crystals in the joint

Osteoarthritis is a common, chronic degenerative joint disease often called "wear-and-tear arthritis.

Which inflammatory joint disease is caused by the bites of ticks that live on mice and deer?
rheumatoid arthritis
gouty arthritis
lyme disease
bursitis

Lyme disease is an inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete bacteria transmitted by the bites of ticks that live on mice and deer. It often results in joint pain and arthritis.

A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the synovial fluids.
True
False

False

Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________.
cruciate ligaments, which help secure the articulating bones together
the oblique popliteal crossing the knee anteriorly
the patellar ligament extending from femur to patella
lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.
prevent hyperextension of the knee
attach to each other in their midportions
are also called collateral ligaments
tend to run parallel to one another

prevent hyperextension of the knee

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set