Chapter 8 Oceanography

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Match the term with the appropriate phrase.
disturbing force

- the energy that causes ocean waves to form

-movement of water of different densities along a water-water interface

-waves at the ocean surface involving longitudinal and transverse waves

-movement of different air masses along an air-air interface

-movement of air across the air-water interface

the energy that causes ocean waves to form

Match the term with the appropriate phrase.
atmospheric waves

movement of water of different densities along a water-water interface

movement of different air masses along an air-air interface

waves at the ocean surface involving longitudinal and transverse waves

the energy that causes ocean waves to form
movement of air across the air-water interface

movement of different air masses along an air-air interface

Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase.
ratio of wave height to wavelength at which waves break

wavelength/2
steepness = 1:7
wave height
wavelength/period

steepness = 1:7

Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase.
diameter of orbital wave at the surface

wavelength/period
steepness = 1:7
wavelength/2
wave height

wave height

Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase.
deep-water wave speed (S)

steepness = 1:7
wave height
wavelength/2
wavelength/period

wavelength/period

An internal wave might form:

close to shore as it moves into shallow water.
only as a result of tidal activity.
at a density boundary within the ocean.
at the boundary between the ocean and the seafloor.
at the boundary between the atmosphere and the ocean.

at a density boundary within the ocean.

What is the crest of a wave?

the highest part of the wave
the lowest part of the wave
the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave
the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point
the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs

the highest part of the wave

What is the trough of a wave?

the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs
the lowest part of the wave
the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave
the highest part of the wave
the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point

the lowest part of the wave

What is the wave height?

the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave
the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs
the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point
the lowest part of the wave
the highest part of the wave

the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave

What is the wavelength?

the lowest part of the wave
the highest part of the wave
the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave
the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point
the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs

the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs

What is the wave period?
-the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave

-the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point
-the highest part of the wave

-the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs

- the lowest part of the wave

the TIME it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point

How are wave period and wavelength related?
Waves with shorter periods have longer wavelengths.
Waves with shorter periods have shorter wavelengths.
Waves with longer periods have shorter wavelengths.

Waves with shorter periods have shorter wavelengths.

Which of the following statements about wave period is most accurate?

Wave period is the inverse of wave frequency.
Wave period is the inverse of wave height.
Wave period is the inverse of wavelength.
Wave period is the inverse of wave amplitude

Wave period is the inverse of wave frequency.

What is an interference pattern?
The wavelength produced when a new wave is created.
The wavelength produced when two or more waves interact.
The wave pattern produced when two or more waves interact.
The wave pattern produced when a new wave is created.

The wave pattern produced when two or more waves interact.

What results when two waves, in phase and with the same wavelength, interact?

A wave with an amplitude that is the sum of the amplitudes of the initial two waves.
A wave with an amplitude that is the multiplication of the amplitudes of the initial two waves.
A wave with an amplitude that is the difference between the amplitudes of the initial two waves.
A wave with an amplitude that is the larger of the amplitudes of the initial two waves.

A wave with an amplitude that is the SUM of the amplitudes of the initial two waves

What does the term "in phase" refer to?
Waves in phase have different wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-peak and trough-to-trough
Waves in phase have identical wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-peak and trough-to-trough
Waves in phase have different wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-trough and trough-to-peak
Waves in phase have identical wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-trough and trough-to-peak

Waves in phase have identical wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-peak and trough-to-trough

When will perfect constructive interference occur for waves that are in phase and moving at the same velocity?

When waves with identical amplitudes interfere.
When waves with short wavelengths interfere.
When waves with identical wavelengths interfere.
When waves with large amplitudes interfere.

When waves with identical wavelengths interfere

When will perfect destructive interference occur?

When two waves that have long wavelength interfere.
When two waves that are in-phase interfere.
When two waves that are 180 degrees out-of-phase interfere.
When two waves that have low amplitude interfere.

When two waves that are 180 degrees out-of-phase interfere.

What occurs more often, pure destructive, pure constructive, or mixed interference?

Mixed interference
Pure destructive interference
Pure constructive interference

Mixed interference

Choose all that apply.

Rogue waves
Havoc waves
Superwaves
Freak waves
Shipwrecker waves

Rogue Waves
Superwaves
Freak waves

Submarines sometimes ride out heavy storms in deep water by submerging. That is a practical application of utilizing the ____________________.

SOFAR channel for safe navigation
principle of constant proportions
wave refraction in deep water
thermohaline stratification
principle of decreasing orbital motion with dept

principle of decreasing orbital motion with depth

You live on an island in the Pacific. An earthquake of magnitude 8.5 off the coast of Japan, 8000 km away, generates a tsunami with a wavelength of 200 km. The average water depth between your island and Japan is 4900 m. If a tsunami warning is issued for your island, how many hours will you have before the waves arrive?
6.87 hours
10.14 hours
8.51 hours
12.34 hours
7.40 hours

10.14 hours

Destructive wave interference results in ___________.
the very best breakers for surfing
reduced wave height
rogue waves
intensified surface currents
increased beach erosion

reduced wave height

The ratio of wave height to wavelength is called the:
period.
wavelength.
wave steepness.
frequency.
wave height.

wave steepness.

Wave speed is equal to:
wavelength divided by frequency.
wavelength divided by period.
wavelength divided by fetch.
wave height divided by frequency.
wave height divided by period.

wavelength divided by period.

The diameter of a wave orbital at the surface is equal to:
wavelength/wave period.
wave height.
wavelength.
wave period.
wave height/wavelength.

wave height.

The speed of a deep-water wave is proportional to:
wave height.
water depth.
wave frequency.
wavelength.
wave speed or celerity

wave speed or celerity.

Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the one option that does not fit the pattern.


A. crest
B. height
C. length
D. period
E. trough

D. period

How does water move as waves pass?

Water moves linearly in the opposite direction to wave movement.
Water moves in a circle in the direction opposite to wave movement.
Water moves linearly in the same direction as wave movement.
Water moves in a circle in the same direction as wave movement.

Water moves in a CIRCLE in the SAME direction as wave movement.

How does wave amplitude change with depth in water?

Wave amplitude increases as depth increases.
Wave amplitude decreases as depth increases.
Wave amplitude remains the same as depth increases.

Wave amplitude decreases as depth increases.

What is the wave base?

the upper limit of wave-induced motion in the water
the lower limit of wave-induced motion in the water
the furthest distance a wave can get to shore before dissipating
the closest distance a wave can get to shore before breaking

the lower limit of wave-induced motion in the water

What is the relationship between wave base and wavelength?

The depth of the wave base is three-quarters of the wavelength of the waves.
The depth of the wave base is one-half the wavelength of the waves.
The depth of the wave base is twice the wavelength of the waves.
The depth of the wave base is two-thirds the wavelength of the waves.
The depth of the wave base is one-and-a-half times the wavelength of the waves.

The depth of the wave base is one-half the wavelength of the waves

Why does wave height increase as waves enter shallow water?
The wavelength of the wave must be contained within a smaller water column in shallow water.
The energy of the wave must be contained within a smaller water column in shallow water.
The wavelength of the wave must be contained within a larger water column in shallow water.
The energy of the wave must be contained within a larger water column in shallow water.

The ENERGY of the wave must be contained within a SMALLER water column in shallow water.

Why do ocean waves bend around headlands?

The waves have longer wavelength just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend.

The waves are moving faster just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend.

The waves are moving more slowly just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend.

The waves have shorter wavelength just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend.

The waves are moving more SLOWLY just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend.

What is refraction?

the bending of waves due to a change in wave phase
the bending of waves due to a change in wave velocity
the bending of waves due to a change in wave amplitude
the bending of waves due to a change in wavelength

the bending of waves due to a change in wave velocity

How does wave refraction at headlands affect deposition and erosion?

Wave refraction at the headland decreases erosion at the headland and causes deposition in adjacent bays.

Wave refraction at the headland increases deposition at the headland and causes erosion in adjacent bays.

Wave refraction at the headland increases erosion at the headland and causes deposition in adjacent bays.

Wave refraction at the headland decreases deposition at the headland and causes erosion in adjacent bays.

Wave refraction at the headland INCREASES EROSION at the headland and causes deposition in adjacent bays.

Which of the following statements about reflection and refraction is most accurate?

Refraction is the bouncing of waves, whereas reflection is the bending of waves.
Refraction and reflection are both the bouncing of waves.
Refraction and reflection are both the bending of waves.
Reflection is the bouncing of waves, whereas refraction is the bending of waves.

Reflection is the bouncing of waves, whereas refraction is the bending of waves

How will a wave change as it moves from a layer of lower velocity into a lower layer of higher velocity?
The wave will not bend.
The wave will bend toward the left.
The wave will stop moving.
The wave will bend toward the right.

The wave will bend toward the right.

How will a wave change as it moves from a layer of higher velocity into a lower layer of lower velocity?
The wave will bend toward the right.
The wave will bend toward the left.
The wave will stop moving.
The wave will not bend.

The wave will bend toward the left.

When will reflection and refraction occur simultaneously?

A wave will reflect and refract when it encounters a boundary between two layers of different velocity.

A wave will reflect and refract when it encounters a boundary between a high-velocity layer above a low-velocity layer.

Waves are always reflecting and refracting, regardless of boundary type or velocity structure.

A wave will reflect and refract when it encounters a boundary between a low-velocity layer above a high-velocity layer.

A wave will reflect and refract when it encounters a boundary between TWO LAYERS of different velocity.

Waves usually arrive nearly parallel to the shore because ____________________________.
waves are refracted toward deep water
waves are refracted toward shallow water
waves constructively interfere with each other
most waves come from storms that are directly offshore
waves destructively interfere with each other

waves are refracted toward shallow water

The first wave that forms when the wind begins to blow across the ocean surface is a:
capillary wave.
tide.
seiche.
tsunami.
wind waves.

capillary wave

The height of a wave depends upon:
fetch.
fetch and wind speed.
wind duration and wind speed.
wind duration.
fetch, wind duration, and wind speed

fetch, wind duration, and wind speed.

The largest wind-generated waves tend to be associated with the:
polar regions.
equatorial doldrums.
trade winds.
horse latitudes.
westerlies.

westerlies

Constructive interference results in larger waves whereas destructive interference produces:

tsunamis.
rouge waves.
swells.
smaller waves.
capillary waves.

smaller waves.

How are tsunamis generated?

through displacement of the seafloor above water
through displacement of the seafloor under water
through creation of the seafloor above water
through creation of the seafloor under water

through displacement of the seafloor under water

What is a tsunami?

a series of water waves that travel away from a fault in all directions at low speed
a series of water waves that travel away from a fault in all directions at high speed
a series of water waves that travel toward a fault in all directions at high speed
a series of water waves that travel toward a fault in all directions at low speed

a series of water waves that travel away from a fault in all directions at high speed

Why do ships at sea tend not to notice tsunamis?
Tsunamis in deep water have small wave height and long wavelength.
Tsunamis in deep water have small wave height and short wavelength.
Tsunamis in deep water have large wave height and long wavelength.
Tsunamis in deep water have large wave height and short wavelength.

Tsunamis in deep water have SMALL wave height and LONG wavelength.

Why does the wave height of a tsunami increase as the tsunami enters shallow water?
In shallow water, the wind driving the tsunami must push a larger water column.
In shallow water, the wind driving the tsunami must push a smaller water column.
In shallow water, the energy of the tsunami must be contained within a larger water column.
In shallow water, the energy of the tsunami must be contained within a smaller water column.

In shallow water, the ENERGY of the tsunami must be contained within a SMALLER water column.

What type of plate boundary are most tsunamis associated with?
convergent plate boundaries
transform plate boundaries
divergent plate boundaries

convergent plate boundaries

Which ocean is associated with most tsunamis?
Arctic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Indian Ocean
Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Will Sumatra experience another tsunami like the destructive one of December 2004?

This is unlikely, because Sumatra is near many ocean trenches.
This is unlikely, because Sumatra is in the Pacific Ocean.
This is likely, because Sumatra is in the Pacific Ocean.
This is likely, because Sumatra is near many ocean trenches

This is likely, because Sumatra is near many ocean trenches.

As a wave begins to feel bottom near a shoreline, its wave height:

increases and its wavelength decreases
increases and its wavelength remains the same.
decreases and its steepness decreases.
decreases and its wavelength increases.
increases and its frequency decreases.

increases and its wavelength decreases

Waves that are breaking along the shore and are forming a curling crest over an air pocket are called:
swells.
plunging breakers.
gravity waves.
spilling breakers.
surf.

plunging breakers.

Waves converge on headlands due to:
constructive interference.
wave reflection.
wave refraction.
destructive interference.
wave diffraction.

wave refraction.

Standing waves may be caused by:
wave reflection.
destructive interference.
wave diffraction.
constructive interference.
wave refraction

wave reflection

Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the one option that does not fit the pattern.


A. plunging breaker
B. spilling breaker
C. surf
D. surging breaker
E. swell

E. swell

A tsunami is considered to be a:
shallow water wave.
refracted wave.
reflected wave.
deep-water wave.
capillary wave.

shallow water wave

Based on the equations for determining the speed of shallow-water waves, which one of the following variables is necessary to determine the speed of shallow-water waves? Select only one answer.

Period
Wave height
Wavelength
Water depth
It is impossible to determine the speed of shallow-water waves without more information

Water depth

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