# Chapter 8 Oceanography

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### Match the term with the appropriate phrase. disturbing force - the energy that causes ocean waves to form -movement of water of different densities along a water-water interface -waves at the ocean surface involving longitudinal and transverse waves -movement of different air masses along an air-air interface -movement of air across the air-water interface

the energy that causes ocean waves to form

### Match the term with the appropriate phrase. atmospheric waves movement of water of different densities along a water-water interface movement of different air masses along an air-air interface waves at the ocean surface involving longitudinal and transverse waves the energy that causes ocean waves to form movement of air across the air-water interface

movement of different air masses along an air-air interface

steepness = 1:7

wave height

### Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase. deep-water wave speed (S) steepness = 1:7 wave height wavelength/2 wavelength/period

wavelength/period

### An internal wave might form: close to shore as it moves into shallow water. only as a result of tidal activity. at a density boundary within the ocean. at the boundary between the ocean and the seafloor. at the boundary between the atmosphere and the ocean.

at a density boundary within the ocean.

### What is the crest of a wave? the highest part of the wave the lowest part of the wave the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs

the highest part of the wave

### What is the trough of a wave? the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs the lowest part of the wave the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave the highest part of the wave the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point

the lowest part of the wave

### What is the wave height? the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point the lowest part of the wave the highest part of the wave

the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave

### What is the wavelength? the lowest part of the wave the highest part of the wave the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs

the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs

### What is the wave period? -the distance between the highest and lowest part of the wave -the time it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point -the highest part of the wave -the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs - the lowest part of the wave

the TIME it takes for one wavelength of a wave to pass a particular point

### How are wave period and wavelength related? Waves with shorter periods have longer wavelengths. Waves with shorter periods have shorter wavelengths. Waves with longer periods have shorter wavelengths.

Waves with shorter periods have shorter wavelengths.

### Which of the following statements about wave period is most accurate? Wave period is the inverse of wave frequency. Wave period is the inverse of wave height. Wave period is the inverse of wavelength. Wave period is the inverse of wave amplitude

Wave period is the inverse of wave frequency.

### What is an interference pattern? The wavelength produced when a new wave is created. The wavelength produced when two or more waves interact. The wave pattern produced when two or more waves interact. The wave pattern produced when a new wave is created.

The wave pattern produced when two or more waves interact.

### What results when two waves, in phase and with the same wavelength, interact? A wave with an amplitude that is the sum of the amplitudes of the initial two waves. A wave with an amplitude that is the multiplication of the amplitudes of the initial two waves. A wave with an amplitude that is the difference between the amplitudes of the initial two waves. A wave with an amplitude that is the larger of the amplitudes of the initial two waves.

A wave with an amplitude that is the SUM of the amplitudes of the initial two waves

### What does the term "in phase" refer to? Waves in phase have different wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-peak and trough-to-trough Waves in phase have identical wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-peak and trough-to-trough Waves in phase have different wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-trough and trough-to-peak Waves in phase have identical wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-trough and trough-to-peak

Waves in phase have identical wavelengths and are aligned peak-to-peak and trough-to-trough

### When will perfect constructive interference occur for waves that are in phase and moving at the same velocity? When waves with identical amplitudes interfere. When waves with short wavelengths interfere. When waves with identical wavelengths interfere. When waves with large amplitudes interfere.

When waves with identical wavelengths interfere

### When will perfect destructive interference occur? When two waves that have long wavelength interfere. When two waves that are in-phase interfere. When two waves that are 180 degrees out-of-phase interfere. When two waves that have low amplitude interfere.

When two waves that are 180 degrees out-of-phase interfere.

### What occurs more often, pure destructive, pure constructive, or mixed interference? Mixed interference Pure destructive interference Pure constructive interference

Mixed interference

Rogue Waves
Superwaves
Freak waves

### Submarines sometimes ride out heavy storms in deep water by submerging. That is a practical application of utilizing the ____________________. SOFAR channel for safe navigation principle of constant proportions wave refraction in deep water thermohaline stratification principle of decreasing orbital motion with dept

principle of decreasing orbital motion with depth

10.14 hours

### Destructive wave interference results in ___________. the very best breakers for surfing reduced wave height rogue waves intensified surface currents increased beach erosion

reduced wave height

wave steepness.

### Wave speed is equal to: wavelength divided by frequency. wavelength divided by period. wavelength divided by fetch. wave height divided by frequency. wave height divided by period.

wavelength divided by period.

wave height.

### The speed of a deep-water wave is proportional to: wave height. water depth. wave frequency. wavelength. wave speed or celerity

wave speed or celerity.

D. period

### How does water move as waves pass? Water moves linearly in the opposite direction to wave movement. Water moves in a circle in the direction opposite to wave movement. Water moves linearly in the same direction as wave movement. Water moves in a circle in the same direction as wave movement.

Water moves in a CIRCLE in the SAME direction as wave movement.

### How does wave amplitude change with depth in water? Wave amplitude increases as depth increases. Wave amplitude decreases as depth increases. Wave amplitude remains the same as depth increases.

Wave amplitude decreases as depth increases.

### What is the wave base? the upper limit of wave-induced motion in the water the lower limit of wave-induced motion in the water the furthest distance a wave can get to shore before dissipating the closest distance a wave can get to shore before breaking

the lower limit of wave-induced motion in the water

### What is the relationship between wave base and wavelength? The depth of the wave base is three-quarters of the wavelength of the waves. The depth of the wave base is one-half the wavelength of the waves. The depth of the wave base is twice the wavelength of the waves. The depth of the wave base is two-thirds the wavelength of the waves. The depth of the wave base is one-and-a-half times the wavelength of the waves.

The depth of the wave base is one-half the wavelength of the waves

### Why does wave height increase as waves enter shallow water? The wavelength of the wave must be contained within a smaller water column in shallow water. The energy of the wave must be contained within a smaller water column in shallow water. The wavelength of the wave must be contained within a larger water column in shallow water. The energy of the wave must be contained within a larger water column in shallow water.

The ENERGY of the wave must be contained within a SMALLER water column in shallow water.

### Why do ocean waves bend around headlands? The waves have longer wavelength just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend. The waves are moving faster just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend. The waves are moving more slowly just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend. The waves have shorter wavelength just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend.

The waves are moving more SLOWLY just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend.

### What is refraction? the bending of waves due to a change in wave phase the bending of waves due to a change in wave velocity the bending of waves due to a change in wave amplitude the bending of waves due to a change in wavelength

the bending of waves due to a change in wave velocity

### Which of the following statements about reflection and refraction is most accurate? Refraction is the bouncing of waves, whereas reflection is the bending of waves. Refraction and reflection are both the bouncing of waves. Refraction and reflection are both the bending of waves. Reflection is the bouncing of waves, whereas refraction is the bending of waves.

Reflection is the bouncing of waves, whereas refraction is the bending of waves

### How will a wave change as it moves from a layer of lower velocity into a lower layer of higher velocity? The wave will not bend. The wave will bend toward the left. The wave will stop moving. The wave will bend toward the right.

The wave will bend toward the right.

### How will a wave change as it moves from a layer of higher velocity into a lower layer of lower velocity? The wave will bend toward the right. The wave will bend toward the left. The wave will stop moving. The wave will not bend.

The wave will bend toward the left.

### When will reflection and refraction occur simultaneously? A wave will reflect and refract when it encounters a boundary between two layers of different velocity. A wave will reflect and refract when it encounters a boundary between a high-velocity layer above a low-velocity layer. Waves are always reflecting and refracting, regardless of boundary type or velocity structure. A wave will reflect and refract when it encounters a boundary between a low-velocity layer above a high-velocity layer.

A wave will reflect and refract when it encounters a boundary between TWO LAYERS of different velocity.

### Waves usually arrive nearly parallel to the shore because ____________________________. waves are refracted toward deep water waves are refracted toward shallow water waves constructively interfere with each other most waves come from storms that are directly offshore waves destructively interfere with each other

waves are refracted toward shallow water

capillary wave

### The height of a wave depends upon: fetch. fetch and wind speed. wind duration and wind speed. wind duration. fetch, wind duration, and wind speed

fetch, wind duration, and wind speed.

westerlies

smaller waves.

### How are tsunamis generated? through displacement of the seafloor above water through displacement of the seafloor under water through creation of the seafloor above water through creation of the seafloor under water

through displacement of the seafloor under water

### What is a tsunami? a series of water waves that travel away from a fault in all directions at low speed a series of water waves that travel away from a fault in all directions at high speed a series of water waves that travel toward a fault in all directions at high speed a series of water waves that travel toward a fault in all directions at low speed

a series of water waves that travel away from a fault in all directions at high speed

### Why do ships at sea tend not to notice tsunamis? Tsunamis in deep water have small wave height and long wavelength. Tsunamis in deep water have small wave height and short wavelength. Tsunamis in deep water have large wave height and long wavelength. Tsunamis in deep water have large wave height and short wavelength.

Tsunamis in deep water have SMALL wave height and LONG wavelength.

### Why does the wave height of a tsunami increase as the tsunami enters shallow water? In shallow water, the wind driving the tsunami must push a larger water column. In shallow water, the wind driving the tsunami must push a smaller water column. In shallow water, the energy of the tsunami must be contained within a larger water column. In shallow water, the energy of the tsunami must be contained within a smaller water column.

In shallow water, the ENERGY of the tsunami must be contained within a SMALLER water column.

### What type of plate boundary are most tsunamis associated with? convergent plate boundaries transform plate boundaries divergent plate boundaries

convergent plate boundaries

Pacific Ocean

### Will Sumatra experience another tsunami like the destructive one of December 2004? This is unlikely, because Sumatra is near many ocean trenches. This is unlikely, because Sumatra is in the Pacific Ocean. This is likely, because Sumatra is in the Pacific Ocean. This is likely, because Sumatra is near many ocean trenches

This is likely, because Sumatra is near many ocean trenches.

### As a wave begins to feel bottom near a shoreline, its wave height: increases and its wavelength decreases increases and its wavelength remains the same. decreases and its steepness decreases. decreases and its wavelength increases. increases and its frequency decreases.

increases and its wavelength decreases

### Waves that are breaking along the shore and are forming a curling crest over an air pocket are called: swells. plunging breakers. gravity waves. spilling breakers. surf.

plunging breakers.

wave refraction.

wave reflection

E. swell

### A tsunami is considered to be a: shallow water wave. refracted wave. reflected wave. deep-water wave. capillary wave.

shallow water wave

Water depth

Example: