Second Continental Congress
Meeting in Philly
May 10, 1775
All thirteen colonies were represented.
Congress to attempt to redress grievences with England.
Delegates also adopted measures to raise money to create an army and navy.
Selected George Washington as military leader.
Battle of Bunker Hill
Tiny American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold surprised and captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point in Upper New York.
Gunpowder and artillary for the siege at Boston was obtained.
June 1775 Colonists siezed Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill).
Americans numbering 1500 soldiers slaughtered the advancing redcoats. Colonists were short on gunpowder and were foced to abandon the hill.
Olive Branch Petition
July 1775 Continental Congress adopted this professing loyalty to the crown and begging the king to prevent further hostilites. Rejected by the crown who then enlisted the help of Hessians to quell the colonists.
Irish born general, formerly of the British army and assisted with the invasion northward.
Pushed upward toward Lake Champlain and captured Montreal.
Killed during an assault on Quebec on December 31, 1775.
In May 1775 American general that lead a surprised and captured the british garrison at Ticonderoga and Crown Point.
He helped Richard Montgomery lead a failed assualt on Quebec.
He turned a traitor in America when he plotted with the British to sell out the key stronghold of West Point, which commanded the Hudson River, for 6,300 pounds because he was greedy and felt his work to america was unappreciated. when the plot was discovered he fled to the British.
Battle at Moore's Bridge
Battle between the southern colonist and 1500 loyalist in North Carolina. Southern colonists were victorious
Publication in 1776 by radical author Thomas Paine.
He was an apprentice that had come from England the year before.
He wrote one of the most influential pamphlets that became a best seller.
It sold 120, 000 copies within the few months.
He felt that all the "shilly shallying" of the colonists was contrary to common sense. He said that nowhere in the physical universe does a smaller body control a larger one.
Author of Common Sense.
British corset maker, came to America as apprentice.
Summoned the colonists to create a Republic form of government.
Richard Henry Lee
June 7, 1776 made a motion that "the United Colonies are and ought to be free and independent states"
Motion was heavily debated and was adopted on July 2, 1776.
Lee's resolution was a formal declaration of independence by the American colonies.
Appointed by the Congress to prepare a more formal statement of separation than Lee's resolution.
33 years old
He was a brilliant writer and drafted what we know today as the Declaration of Independence.
Adopted on July 4, 1776.
Declaration of Independence
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, a Virgininan in 1776.
Formally adopted by the Congress on July 4, 1776.
"Shout heard round the world" has been a source of inspiration to other revolutionary movements.
Those colonists who wanted to remain loyal to the crown and not declare independence.
Nickname for Loyalists. Name came from dominent political party in England called the whigs. "A tory is a thing whose head is in England, and body in America and its neck ought to be stretched."
Name for party of Patriots of the the new land (America) resisiting England prior to Declaration of Independence.
Battle of Long Island
Scene of battle between colonists and British.
American colonists were outnumbered and outmanuevered and they were forced to retreat north.
Battle of Trenton
December 26, 1776
Battle where George Washington crossed over ice clogged Delaware River to execute a surprise attack on the sleeping Hessians at Trenton.
He was successful and this was a pivotal battle for the colonists as it helped to lift their spirits and move on with their quest for independence.
Battle of Princeton
Second successful battle by George Washington. A week following the Battle of Trenton in January 1777 he left his campfire burning as a decoy and slipped away and defeated a smaller British detachment at Princeton.
General William Howe
English General who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill. Howe did not look forward to the rigors of winter campaigning.
At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.
British general that submitted a plan for invading New York from Canada.
He was then given charge of the army.
He was defeated, he advanced troops near Lake Champlain to near Albany.
Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga on Oct. 17, 1777. This battle helped to bring France into the war as an ally for the United States, this has been called one of the decisive battles of history.
Baron Von Steuben
Prussian drillmaster arrived in 1777 with task of getting the American army ready for battle at Saratoga.
Battle of Saratoga
Battle won on October 17, 1777.
Burgoyne pushed northward and was then surronded by a host of American militia men. Benedict Arnold was shot in the leg.B
British army was trapped and forced to surrender his entire command to American General Horatio Gates.
Came from the English army and worked his way up through the ranks. Latter during the revolution he turned sides and was appointed to take charge of the Continental army of the North. One of Gates accomplishments was his victory at Saratoga. His career in the army ended when he lost to General Charles Cornwallis.
Colonial general who fought the English in the late eighteenth century-- used fighting tactic of retreating and getting the English to pursue for miles. Historical Significance: Cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops.
British general who fought in the Seven Years War, was elected to the House of Commons in 1760, and lost battles to George Washington on December 26, 1776 and on January 3, 1777.
Cornwallis made his mark on history, even though he could never ensure an overall British win over the Americans.
He had many individual victories and losses against the Americans in the American Revolution and will always be remembered as a great and powerful general.
George Rogers Clark
Frontiersman; led the seizing of 3 British forts in 1777; led to the British giving the region north of the Ohio River to the United States.
Admiral de Grasse
Admiral de Grasse operated a powerful French fleet in the West Indies. He advised America he was free to join with them in an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown. Rochambeau's French army defended British by land and Admiral de Grasse blockaded them by sea. This resulted in Cornwallis's surrender on October 19, 1781.
John Jay was the First Chief Justice of the United States, and also an American statesman and jurist. Elected to the Continental Congress, he also helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris w/ Great Britain, ending the American Revolution. Serving as governor of New York State from 1795 to 1801, he was a advocate of a strong national government. Appointed by Washington, Jay negotiated a settlement when was w/ Britain threatened due to controversies over the Treaty of Paris: it became known as Jay's Treaty.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
The British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland. It greatly upset the Canadians.