Freedom of religion, speech, press, right to assemble peacefully, & right to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Right to bear arms
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war; but in a manner to be prescribed by law. (Response to the Quartering Act)
Right to security. Prevention of false search or seizure without a warrant.
Right to avoid self-incrimination. Prevention of "double-jeopardy." Establishment of prosecution by due process
Right to a speedy and public trial by peers, and the establishment of right to defense
Common law. Right to trial by jury in civil cases over $20.
No excessive bail may be required, nor should cruel and unusual punishment be doled.
The establishment of the Bill of Rights doesn't imply that rights not mentioned are not protected.
States' rights - although not changing the distinction between the power of the Federal Government & the States, it does reiterate states' ability to regulate those things not mentioned as Federal Powers. (Education, interstate commerce, etc.)