occurs in a word with two or more syllables when one or more of the syllables is deleted. weak syllable deletion is a form of this related to unstressed syllables/weak vowels.
consonant sequence reduction
omission of one or more sound segments from two or more contiguous consonants. Can occur within a syllable (clusters) or across syllables (sequences).
prevocalic singleton omission
aka initial consonant deletion. absence of single obstruent consonants that initiate words or syllables; does not apply to clusters
postvocalic singleton omission
aka final consonant deletion. Refers to a CV preference. Omission of a single consonant that terminates a word or syllable. It affects obstruents more often than nasals. Glides do not occur postvocalically in English, and postvocalic liquids typically are subject to another process (vowelization). Does not apply to clusters.
Occurs when a phoneme is added to a word. The most commonly added phoneme is schwa. Cluster creation is a form of epenthesis, as is syllable additions.
5 syllable structure processes
1. syllable reduction
2. consonant sequence reduction
3. prevocalic singleton omission
4. postvocalic singleton omission
occurs when a strident phoneme is either totally omitted or replaced by a non-strident phoneme. Does not apply to distortions in which stridency is maintained.
Occurs when a velar consonant is omitted or replaced by a more anterior phoneme.
occurs when l or r are totally omitted or replaced by a non-liquid phoneme
occurs when a nasal sound is omitted or replaced by a non-nasal sound in a word
occurs when the glide phoneme is omitted or replaced by a non-glide phoneme
5 class omission processes
1. stridency deletion
2. velar deviation
3. liquid omission
4. nasal deviation
5. glide deviation
substitutions of voicing
1. prevocalic voicing
2. postvocalic devoicing
occurs when voicing is added to a voiceless target preceding a vowel
occurs when a voiced postvocalic obstruent is replaced with a voiceless phone. This is a normal adult process produced at the end of an utterance.
2 other processes
Occurs when two contiguous consonants are replaced by a single consonant which shares features of the two original consonants.
occurs when phonemes or syllables are transposed.
glottal stop replacement
a glottal stop is substituted for any phoneme
any continuant consonant becomes a stop consonant. Doesn't apply to affricates because affricates already contain a stop.
any posterior consonant (velar, glottal) becomes an anterior consonant
a posterior consonant is substituted for a strident or nonstrident anterior consonant
a glide is substituted for any other consonants
a vowel is substituted for a vocalic liquid
a consonant is moved to a different position in a word
an affricate is substituted for a fricative or a consonant cluster, or when a stop is added before a continuant sound.
an affricate is replaced by a continuant or stop
a nonpalatal consonant is replaced by a palatal consonant
the palatal component is lacking from the production of a palatal consonant
a nonlabial target becomes labial because of another labial consonant
a nasal is substituted for a nonnasal consonant because of another nasal in the word
a velar is substituted for a nonvelar consonant because of another velar in the target word
the repetition of phonemes or syllables
phonemic substitutions that might affect meaning
tongue protrusions during productions of sibilants occur. stridency is maintained...not used for theta.
lateral emission occurs during production of sibilants
substitutions of place
substitutions of manner
3. liquid vowelization
phonology affects what?
A typical assessment must gather enough information to determine
1. whether the prerequisite behaviors for spoken language are present
2. any underlying cause or contributing factors
two subparts of "whether the prerequisite behaviors for spoken language are present
1. status of hearing and speech mechanism
2. status of speech and language skills
why do you need a sound assessment?
so you can make a differential diagnosis
8 criteria for sound assessment
1. background questionnaire and interview
2. evaluation of hearing mechanism
3. standardized receptive/expressive language test
4. standardized sound test
5. oral mechanism screening
6. speech and language sampling
7. supplemental assessments
8. phonological awareness
what does sound mean?
data from a multitude of sources -- thorough
why do you need a standardized (formal)?
to compare to others without disorder -- is there a problem?
why do you need criterion-referenced?
in order to develop therapy goals
why interview and questionnaire
gain info on general development and id factors that may need further exploration
why evaluation of hearing mechanism
sounds and language learned primarily through spoken language input; might be wasting your time if don't do this.
components of hearing screeing
pure-tone audiometric screening and immittance audiometry
why should language be included in a sound assessment?
1. make sure sound not affecting other areas
2. 60% co-occurrence
3. if not enough vocab, can't work on phonology. worry about semantics and MLU.
4. are they going to understand directions for therapy?
morphemes per utterance
total words/total sentences -- gross measure, use when child unintelligible
important info about language during assessment
3. MLU or MRU
4. late talker?
why want to know if late talker?
because all systems need to be age-appropriate before working on phonology
why standardized sound test?
1. relational analysis
2. need to compare to others
3. ID what's wrong
can you have both a phonological disorder and an articulation disorder?
no. one or the other. not both.
variables to consider when choosing artic test or phonological
1. age of child
some signs of phonological disorder
older siblings interpret, speaks own language
advantages of sound screening
1. when middle ground, can be faster to determine whether artic or phonology
2. good for large groups
why independent analysis?
1. size and distribution of sounds in child's phonetic and phonemic system
2. determine whether typical for age
How many prevocalic consonants by 32 months?
how many postvocalic consonants by 32 months?
how many different syllable shapes 30-41 months?
6, plus multisyllable words
PCC by 32 months
characterize sounds by 32 months.
should be stable with minimal variation; no errors in earlier developing sounds
should an independent analysis be conducted for a child with a suspected artic disorder?
No, waste of time because relatively few errors
should independent analysis be conducted when unintelligible?
yes, because could be only positive info parent gets.
why language sample?
only way to find out how sound errors change
why oral mech screening?
to determine if structures needed for speech are present and functioning WNL; or if nasality, look later on
why supplemental severity scale?
1. quantify child's speech severity
2. document pre-and post-intervention changes
3. determine eligibility for services
what are four nonstandardized severity tests?
severity measure from happ3
total # of consonants correct/total # in sample
articulation competence index. PCC+RDI/2
relative distortion index; total number of distortion errors
why supplemental stimulability?
1. plan intervention
2. determine prognosis
what is stimulability assessment?
dynamic assessment of articulation change
client's ability to produce the correct articulation of a misarticulated sound when some kind of stimulation is provided by the clinician. Can involve direct imitation, phonetic placement cues, sound modification
is it important to test for stimulability if a phonological disorder is present?
No, bc should be stimulable for almost all sounds
why evaluate vowels?
1. differentiating characteristic between phonology and CAS
2. indicator of hearing loss
why test phonological awareness?
relationship to early reading
should we measure PA if artic disorder?
Yes, if previous history of phono disorder, and articulation disorders can impact spelling
How do you differentially diagnose between phono and DAS?
implement treatment and see if change.
some receptive lang tests
PPVT, PLS-4, CELF-4, CASL, TOLD, P3
expressive lang test
some standardized sound tests
Happ3, Goldman-Fristoe Test of ARtic, Fisher-logemann, Spat-D, CAAp, photo artic test, Arizona artic proficiency
4 stages of phonological development
2. first words
What are first words characterized by?
anterior stops, nasals, glides, CV, VC, CVC, CVCV
age of phonemic period
18 months to 4 years old
phonemic period characterized by
explosion of words, MLU, syntax,pragmatics. rapid increase in vocab forces child to switch from whole-word strategy to rule-based strategy. Relationships between sounds of the adult model and the child's pronunciation becomes more systematic (rule-governed).
during which period do phonological processes usually occur?
age of prelinguistic
birth to one year
1. speech-like and nonspeech-like vocalizations
2. speech-like vocalizations become prominent at the end of this stage
definition of phonological process
systematic simplification of an adult phonological pattern; developmentally predictable, rule-governed
characteristics of stabilization of the phonological system
1. pronunciations of phonemes that had been variably produced become stabilized
2. Last phonemes acquired to complete child's phonetic inventory
4. exposure to reading and writing helps refine sound system
age of stabilization
4 years to 8
order of word shape
monosyllable, bisyllable, trisyllable
order of syllable shape
V, CV, CVCV, VC/CVC, CCVC/CVCC, CCCV/CCCVC (open before closed, singleton before sequence)
order of manner of pattern emergence
1. stops, nasals, glides
frequent backward processes for stridents
frequent backward process for liquids
order of place of pattern emergence
1. labials, alveolars
2. velars, glottal
3. palatal, interdental
place manner together, order
1. anterior stops, nasals, glides
2. anterior stridents
5. palatal stridents
by what age vowels intact?
language learning disorder; occurs when a child fails to acquire the adult rules of a language; child doesn't have enough features to adequately organize system
simplification of an adult pattern; simplifies a sound by reducing features
adult rules of language
phonological disorder usually have beautiful vowel sounds.
normal age for phono disorder
profile for phono disorder
1. restricted range/frequency of features, sound segments and combos
2. restricted syllable shapes, no clusters/sequences
3. relatively well-developed vowel system
4. chronological mismatch
5. static systems
meanign of static in relation to phono disorder
they lack the ability to effect change in their sound systems
role of therapy in phono disorders
expand rules; give them more rules
red flags at 3 years
1. numerous vowel errors, could be apraxia of speech
2. widespread deletion of initial consonants
3. substitution of glottal consonants for a variety of targets
4. substitution of back for front
5. deletion of final consonants
is phonology about mastery or acquisition?
two categories of artic disorders
1. non-developmental processes
2. residual errors persisting beyond age of mastery
type of errors, phono v artic
basis of errors, phon v artic
focus, phono v artic
organization of system, sound production
emphasis, phono v artic
sound classes, individual sounds
affricates to either a fricative or stop
features typically involved in gliding
liquids...but obstruents can be glided, too
vowel and all consonants that follow
two letters that make one sound
sounds next to each other that don't lose integrity
when sounds change according to morpheme, like cubed and stopped
do sonorants have cognates?
no, they're all voiced.
what are non-nasal sonorants?
same manner and place, different voicing
fricatives characterized by
what are the two most important ways to classify vowels?
tongue position and height
are there more lax or tense vowels?
produced by a vocal tract that is more or less unobstructed
member of cognate produced with more muscle tension, greater airflow and shorter duration
by 13 months how many words in receptive vocab