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public goods

giids abd services that cannot readily be provided by markets either because theya are too expensive for a single individual to buy or because if one person bought them, everyone else would use the, without paying.

free market

Free competition for voluntary exchange among individuals, firms, and corporations.

gross domestic product (gdp)

Measure of exonomic nation's total prioduction of goods and services for a single year, valued in terms of market prices.

externalties

costs imposed on people who are not direct participants in an activity.

income transfers

Government transfers of income from taxpayers to persons regarded as deserving.

democracy

governing system in which the people govern themselves, from the reek term meaning 'rule by the many"

Government

oprganization extending to the whole society that can legitimately use force to carry out its decisions.

legitimacy

widespread acceptance of something as neccessary, rightful, and legally binding

social contract

idea that government originates as an implied contract among individuals who agree to obey laws in exchange for protection of their rights.

democratic ideals

Individual dignity, equality before the law, widespread participation in public decisions, and public decisions by majority rule, with one person having one vote.

paradox of democracy

Potential for conflict between individual freedom and majority rule

limited government

Basic principle that government is limited in what it may do, and each individual has certain rights that government cannot take away

totalitarianism

rule by an elite that exercises unlimited power over individuals in all aspects of life.

Authoritarianism

monopoly of poliitcal power by an individual or small group that otherwise allows people to go about their private lives as they wish

constituational government

A goverment limited by rule of law in its power iover the liverties of individuals

direct democracy

governing system in whice every person parcipates actively in every public decision rahter than delegating decision making to representititves

representative democracy

governing system in which public decision making is delegated to representatitves of the people chosen by popular vote in free, openm and periodic elections.

elitism

Political system in which power is concentrated in the hands of a relatively small group of individuals or institutions.

pluralism

theory that democracy can be achieved through competition among multiple organized groups and that individuals can participate in politics through group memberships and elections; public policy is the result of competition among groups

beliefs

shared ideas about what is true

subcultures

variations on the prevailing values and beliefs in a society

classical liberalism

political philosophy asserting the worth and dignity of the individual and emphasizing the rational ability of human beings to determine their on destinies

capitalism

economic system asserting the individual's right to own private property and to buy, sell, rent,a nd trade that property in a a free market

legal equality

belief that the laws should apply eqaully to all persons.

political equality

belief that every person's vote counts equally

equality of reults

equally sharing of income and material goods regardless of one's efforts in life

social mobility

extent to which people move upward or downward in income and status over a lifetime or over generations

class conflict

conflict between upper and lower social classes over wealth and power

class consciousness

awareness of one's class position and a feeling of political solidarity with others within the same class in opposition to other classes

immigration policy

regulating the entry of non-citizens into the country

aliens

persons residing in a nation who are not citizens

amnesty

government forgiveness of a crime, usually granted to a group of people

illegal immigration

the unlawful entry of a person into a nation

passport

evidence of u.s. citizenship, allowing people to travel abroad and reenter the united states

visa

a document or stamp on a passport allowing a person to visit a foreign country

secular

in politics, a reference to opposistion to religious practives and symbols in public life

conservatism

belief in the value of free markets, limited government, and individual self-reliance in economic affairs, combined with a belief in the value of tradition, law, and morality in social affairs

ideology

consistent and integrated systems of ideas, values, and beliefs

liberalism

belief in the value of strong government to provide economic securety and its protection for civil rights comvined with a velief in personal freedom from government intervention in social conduct.

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