psychology test 3 (modules 20, 21, & 22)

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In classical conditioning, the NS becomes a ________ after it reliably signals the impending occurrence of the ________.

CS; US

During extinction, the ________ is omitted; as a result, the ________ seems to disappear.

US; CR

Jordan is frightened by the sound of a train whistle. The sound is a(n) _________.

stimulus

US

unconditional stimulus

UR

Unconditional response

CS

conditioned stimulus

CR

conditioned response

Which of the following is a form of associative learning?
A.classical conditioning
B.cognitive learning
C.observational learning
D.all of these types of learning

classical conditioning

Learning is best defined as?

a relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience.

In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the impending occurrence of?

an unconditioned stimulus.

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)

unconditioned stimulus.

Acquiring new habits best illustrates the process of?

Learning

Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because?

so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.

Just after they taste a sweet liquid, mice are injected with a drug that produces an immune response. Later, the taste of the sweet liquid by itself triggers an immune response. This best illustrates?

classical conditioning.

To obtain a reward, a monkey learns to press a lever when a 1000-Hz tone is on but not when a 1200-Hz tone is on. What kind of training is this?

discrimination

In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the meat served as

US

After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin's fear.

unconditioned stimulus

A geometric figure is most likely to trigger sexual arousal if presented shortly

before an appropriate US.

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)

unconditioned stimulus.

Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as?

shaping.

Alex was paid $100 for eight hours of work. The money was a(n)?

conditioned reinforcer.

A learned association between behaviors and resulting events is central to?

operant conditioning.

Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)

positive reinforcer.

The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of money as ________ is to ________.

primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer

Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of
A.conditioned reinforcers.
B.cognitive processes.
C.spontaneous recovery.
D.respondent behavior.

cognitive processes.

Five-year-olds copy senseless and irrelevant adult actions such as stroking a plastic jar with a feather before reaching inside the jar for a toy. This best illustrates
A.negative reinforcement.
B.overimitation.
C.spontaneous recovery.
D.instinctive drift.

overimitation.

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed that his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of
A.modeling.
B.respondent behavior.
C.shaping.
D.immediate reinforcement.

modeling.

Classical conditioning experiments by Rescorla and Wagner demonstrate that an important factor in conditioning is
A.the predictability of an association.
B.the strength of the stimuli.
C.the similarity of stimuli.
D.the research participant's age.

the predictability of an association.

Sandy finds it harder to frown when watching her brother smile than when seeing him frown. Scientists are currently debating whether this can be attributed to the activation of
A.cognitive maps.
B.mirror neurons.
C.extrinsic motives.
D.instinctive drift.

mirror neurons.

Mirror neurons are believed by some scientists to provide a biological basis for
A.spontaneous recovery.
B.extrinsic motivation.
C.observational learning.
D.the law of effect.

observational learning.

Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.
A.predicts
B.inhibits
C.causes
D.is unrelated to

predicts

Alex learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings. This best illustrates the value of observational learning for promoting
A.conditioned responses.
B.prosocial behavior.
C.spontaneous recovery.
D.extrinsic motivation.

prosocial behavior.

Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to
A.discriminating.
B.punishing.
C.modeling.
D.generalizing.

modeling.

When Adam observed his sister being scolded after she hit another child, Adam also discontinued hitting other children. This best illustrates the impact of
A.spontaneous recovery.
B.vicarious punishment.
C.instinctive drift.
D.intrinsic motivation.

vicarious punishment.

Two years ago, the de Castellane Manufacturing Company included its employees in a profit-sharing plan in which workers receive semi-annual bonuses based on the company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity at de Castellane has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of
A.spontaneous recovery.
B.latent learning.
C.operant conditioning.
D.classical conditioning.

operant conditioning.

Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct?
A.Learning is fastest and resistance to extinction is greatest after continuous reinforcement.
B.Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.
C.Learning is fastest and resistance to extinction is greatest following intermittent reinforcement.
D.Learning is most rapid with intermittent reinforcement, but continuous reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.

B. Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.

Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.
A.increase; decrease
B.increase; increase
C.have no effect on; decrease
D.decrease; increase

D. increase; increase

Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.
A.observational learning
B.operant conditioning
C.latent learning
D.classical conditioning

operant conditioning

Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.

increase; increase

If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates

associative learning.

Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of

associative learning.

Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)

positive reinforcer.

In explaining juvenile delinquency, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized?

faulty child-rearing practices.

A learned association between behaviors and resulting events is central to?

operant conditioning.

Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.

negative

According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by

external influences.

Studies suggest that criminal behavior is most likely to be deterred by

swiftly delivered punishment.

Alex was paid $100 for eight hours of work. The money was a(n)

conditioned reinforcer.

Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she feels less anxious when she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of

operant conditioning.

Acquiring new habits best illustrates the process of

learning

Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of

punishment

Primary reinforcers could best be described as

innately satisfying stimuli.

Janet has almost finished painting a neighbor's house, at which time she'll be paid $2000. The fact that she is increasingly unlikely to quit painting as she nears completion of the job best illustrates that operant behavior is strongly influenced by ________ reinforcers.

immediate

Learning is best defined as

a relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience.

The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by

Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.

Mirror neurons are believed by some scientists to provide a biological basis for

observational learning

A cognitive map is a

mental representation of one's environment.

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach.

Classical conditioning experiments by Rescorla and Wagner demonstrate that an important factor in conditioning is

the predictability of an association.

Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to

perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe.

In Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate
A.taste and sounds with electric shock.
B.taste with electric shock.
C.taste with sickness.
D.sights and sounds with sickness.

taste with sickness.

Megan fails to see any connection between how hard she works and the size of her annual pay raises. Consequently, she puts little effort into her job, even though she really wants a big raise. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in the operant conditioning of work habits.
A.biological predispositions
B.primary reinforcers
C.cognitive processes
D.spontaneous recovery

cognitive processes

The views of learning advanced by Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson underestimated the importance of

cognitive processes.

A psychologist who emphasizes cognitive processes would be likely to suggest that classical conditioning depends on
A.an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS.
B.the amount of time between the presentation of the CS and the US.
C.an organism's behavior in response to environmental stimulation.
D.how frequently an organism is exposed to an association of a CS and a US.

an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS.

If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates?

latent learning

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by?

biopsychosocial approach.

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