French and Indian War
France and Britain battle over the Ohio River Valley. Spain aided France. Treaty of Paris ended the war - eliminated French power in N. America and Florida was given to Britain for compensation
Albany Plan of Union
Proposed by B. Franklin at the Albany Meeting (meeting between colonists and Iroquis Indians). Called for the colonies to unite to form a common government for their defense.
First direct tax on the colonists. Required a stamp on most legal written documents. Quartering Act - Colonists had to pay the rent of British soldiers. Colonial response - boycott on British goods.
New custom duties on glass, lead, paint, and TEA. Smugglers were tried in a vice-admiralty court. Writs of assistance - British search warrants to look for evidence of smuggling. Colonial governments ban British goods and Britain dissolves the legislative assemblies.
British troops arrive in Boston to assist custom officers. British soldiers fire into the crowd after colonists throw snowballs at them. Britain repeals the Townshend Act except for the tax on tea.
British ship stationed off the coast of Rhode Island to intercept smugglers. Burned by the colonists who were tried in England. Established the Committees of Correspondence.
Committees of Correspondence
Created by Thomas Jefferson. Members of each colony who communicate with one another.
Boston Tea Party
Result of the British East India Tea Company selling tea at a lower price than American merchants. In Boston, 150 men, dressed as Indians dump the tea shipment into the harbor.
Coercive Acts (laws intended to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party) and the Quebec Act. The Coercive acts included: shut down Boston Harbor, all council members appointed by the Governor, transfer trial of British soldiers to England, and forced officals to provide lodging for British soldiers. Quebec Act - the King would run Quebec and appoint the governor and council (no legislative assembly in the territory)
First Continental Congress
55 Delegates met in Philadelphia. Radical delegates wanted war and independence. Moderate delegates wanted compromise.
Phamplet written by Thomas Paine. Convinced many colonists that the King, not Parliament, was the reason for their troubles. Many more colonists ready for independence.
Declaration of Independence
Created at the Second Continental Congress. Declared the colonies as free and independent states, separate from Great Britain. Provided the notion that all men are created equal with the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Established that the power of government comes from the people.
Lexington and Concord
First meeting of the militia and British soldiers. "The shot heard round the world." After the war, British troops were surrounded in Boston.
Battle of Bunker Hill
First victory of the militia army. Defeated the British soldiers marching uphill.
Battle of White Plains
Battle during Washington's retreat from New York. Establishes New York as the headquarters of the British army.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the Revolutionary War. Convinced France to enter the war on the side of the Americans (France committed TROOPS). General Burgoyne (British) was defeated by General Arnold (American) and forced to surrender his entire army.
France was the first country to recognize the United States as an independent nation. Spain entered the war as an ally of France, not the colonies.
British Capture of Charleston
Strategic battle of the South to use the ports for incoming supplies and as a blockade against the enemy troops. Gave Britain total control of the South. Greatest American defeat in the war.
Battle of Kings Mountain
Civil War component of the Revolutionary War. Patriot (mountain men) vs. British and American Loyalists. Patriots won through guerilla warfare. Switched the momentum from the British to the Americans in the South.
Battle of Yorktown
American victory that ended the Revolutionary War. General Greene (American) pursued General Cornwallis (British) by land, French surrounded the Bay of Yorktown, and Washington cancelled his attack on NY and headed to Virginia.
Treaty of Paris
Ended the American Revolutionary War. Britain recognized the United States as a new nation (Western Border = Mississippi River). Britain gave Florida back to Spain.
Problems with the Articles of Confederation
Lacked power to tax, could not regulate trade, no federal court system, poor foreign policy, economic crisis.
Famers liked paper money because it lost value, making loans easier to repay.
Lack Power to Tax
Congress could not pay for acquired Revolutionary War debt.
Power Given to the National Government under the Articles of Confederation
Declare War, Make Peace, Coin Money, Manage Foreign Affairs, Establish a Postal System
Met to modify the Articles of Confederation. Needed to balance the rights and aspirations of the states with the need for a stronger national government.
Plan accepted by Congress to create a new Constitution. Called for a national government with 3 branches and 2 houses of Congress (representation based on population). Benefitted larger states.
Federalists and Anti-Federalists
Federalists supported the Constitution and the need for a strong central government. Anti-Federalists believe the Constitution gave the national government too much power.
Form of government where the power comes from the people. Power is divided between the state and national government.
Ratification of the Constitution
Anti-Federalists voted to ratify the Constitution under the following conditions: Bill of Rights and an amendment that would reserve for the states all power not specifically granted to the national government.
New Jersey Plan
Plan to modify the Articles of Confederation to create a stronger national government.