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trophic (feeding biology)

shared evolutionary histories, creating taxa such as vertebrate animals, insects, coniferous trees, & orchids.

autotrophs

self-feeders, use inorganic sources of both carbon & energy

photosynthetic autotrophs

carbon dioxide as a source of carbon & light as a source of energy to synthesize organic compounds

organic compounds

molecules that contain carbon, such as sugars, amino acids, 7 fats

chemosynthetic autotrophs

synthesize organic molecules using CO2 as a carbon source & inorganic chemicals, such as hydrogen sulfide as their source of energy

heterotrophs

other feeders are organisms that use organic molecules both as source of carbon & as a source of energy

prokaryotes

have cells with no membrane-bound nucleus or organelles including bacteria & archaea

archaea

are prokaryotes distinguished from bacteria on the basis of structural, physiological & other biological features

rhodopsin

light-absorbing pigments found in animal eyes & in the bacteria & archaea

photosynthesis autotrophs synthesize organic molecules using CO2 as a source of

carbon & light as an energy source

photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)

visible light carrying sufficient energy to drive the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, but not so much as to destroy organic molecules

Photon flux density

number of photons striking a square meter surface each second

rubisco

is phosphoglyceric acid, or PGA, a 3-carbon acid

C3 photosynthesis

photosynthetic pathway where plants like rice, wheat & soybeans are C3 plants

photorespiration

occurs in light & consumes energy & produces CO2

C4 photosynthesis

separates carbon fixation & light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis into separate cells

bundle sheath

in C4 plant, the acids produced during carbon fixation diffuse to specialized cells surrounding a structure

CAM photosynthesis

crassulacean acid metabolism is largely found in succulent plants in arid & semiarid environments & among epiphytes growing in the canopies of forests

chemosynthetic autotrophs synthesize organic molecules using CO2 as a

carbon source & inorganic molecules as an energy source

heterotrophic organisms use organic molecules both as a

source of carbon & as an energy source

herbivores

organisms that eat plants

carnivores

organisms that mainly eat animals

detritivores

organims that feed on nonliving organic matter, ususally the remains of plants

ecological stoichiometry

concerns the balance of multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions

mullerian mimicry

noxious organisms (stinging bees & waps) mimic each other

batesian mimicry

king snakes mimic coral snakes & syrphid flies mimic bees & wasp

size-selective predation

predators select predators by size because they must catch & subdue their prey

the rate at which organisms can take in energy

is limited

irradiance

photo flux density required to produce the maximum rate of photosynthesis

net photosynthesis

can be measured as total, or gross, CO2 uptake during photosynthesis minus the CO2 produced by the pant's own respiration

functional response

gradually increase the amount of food available to a hungry animal, its rate of feeding increases & then levels off

optimal foraging theory models

feeding behavior as an optimizing process

optimal foraging theory

the prediction spawned an area of ecological inquiry

principle of allocation

inevitable conflict between energy allocations

optimization

general prediction is that predators will continue to add different types of prey to their diet until the rate of energy intake reaches a maximum

photosynthetic autotrophs synthesize organic molecules using

CO2 as a source of carbon & light as an energy source

chemosynthetic autotrophs synthesize organic molecules using

CO2 as a carbon source & inorganic molecules as an energy source

heterotrophic organisms use organic molecules both as

a source of carbon & as an energy source

the rate at which organisms can take in energy

is limited

optimal foraging theory models feeding behavior as

an optimizing process

photosynthesis' formula

CO2 + H2O -> C6H12O6 + O2

C3 Plants

maples, bluegrass & wheat - carbon fixation in plants - midrange temperatures - less sensitive to cold temperatures

C4 Plants

corn, crab grass - more efficient at conserving water - better in hot, dry areas

CAM plants

fix CO2 at night - reduce water loss for arid & stressful environments - Aloe & Pineapples

chemosynthesis

CO2 for carbon source, use chemicals for energy rather than sunlight - sulfur hydrogen sulfide ammonium nitrite iron hydrogen carbon monoxide

ecological pyramid

1. secondary carnivores & tertiary consumers
2. primary carnivores & secondary consumers
3. herbivores & primary consumers
4. producers

optimal forging theory

describes the parameters by which feeding is most efficient in terms of energy expended vs energy obtained

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