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___ provides the raw materials and nutrients needed by the cell to use to reproduce and build new tissue

food

the energy needed in cell production and tissue building is release from food in the process of ___ ____

cell respiration

the function of the ___ ____ is to change these complex organic nutrient molecules into simple organic and inorganic molecules that can be absorbed into the blood or lymph to be transported to cells

digestive system

divisions of the digestive system are the ___ ___ and the ___ ___

alimentary tube and the accessory organs

___ ___ extends from the mouth to the anus

alimentary tube

the alimentary tube consists of what?

oral cavity phyarnx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines and the large intestines(colon)

the layer of the alimentary tube that produces digestive secretions is the ___

mucosa

the layer that contains Messiners plexus(automomic nerve networks) to regulate secretions is the ____

submucosa

the layer of the alimentary canal tube that is responsible for peristalasis is the ___ ___ ___

external muscle layer

most of the absorption of nutrients takes place in the __ ___

small intestines

undigested material primarily cellulose is eliminated by the __ ___

large intestines

what are the accessory organs that each contribute to the digestive process?

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas

___ ___ is the breaking up of food into smaller pieces with more surface area

mechanical digestion

what are examples of mechanical digestion?

chewing, contractions of the small intestines, the churning of the stomach

__ ___ is the process of changing complex food molecules into simpler molecules

chemical digestion

what are some examples of chemical digestion?

action of lipase on fats, action of trypsin on protein, and action of amylase on starch

What are the 3 types of complex organic molecules found in food?

carbohydrates, proteins and fats

____ such as starches and disacchirides are digested to monsacchrides

carbohydrate

the end product of carbohydrate digestion are monosacchrides which are ___ ___ and ___

glucose, fructose and galactose

the end product of fat digestion are ___ and ___

fatty acids and glyceral

the end products of protein digestion are __ __

amino acids

food enter the __ __ or ___ __ by the way of the mouth

oral cavity or buccal cavity

within the oral cavity are the __ and the __ and the openings of the ducts of the ___ ___

teeth tongue salivary glands

the function of the teeth is for ___

chewing

___ teeth is a complete set of permanent teeth

32

part of the tooth that provides a hard chewing surface is the ___

enamel

__ ___ is the part that contains the blood vessels and the nerves

pulp cavity

____ ____ is the part of that anchors the tooth in a socket

periodontal membrane

___ forms the roots of a tooth

dentine

the pulp cavity contains the blood vessels and branches of the ____ ____

trigeminal nerve(5thcranial)

hard chewing surface is provided by the ___ which is similar to bone

enamel

teeth are found in sockets in the ____ and ___

mandible and maxillae

____ is made up of skeletal muscle that is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve(12th cranial)

tongue

what is the function of the hypoglossal nerves?

movement of the tongue

whats the functions of the tongue?

chewing, tasting and swallowing

the sensory nerves for taste are the ___ and the ____

facial(7th) glosspharyngeal(9th)

digestion secretion in the oral cavity is ___

saliva

secretion of __ is continuous

saliva

presence of food in the mouth ___ the secretion of saliva

increases

secretion of saliva is a _______ response innvervated by the glossopharygeal nerve and facial nerve

parasympathetic

sympathetic response in stress ___ saliva

reduces

__ is mostly water which is used to dissolve the food

saliva

___ is the part of the saliva that inhibits the growth of bacteria

lysozymes

____ is part of the saliva that digest starch to maltose

amylase

the salivary glands located just in front of the ears is the ___ ___

parotid glands

____ ____ located at the posterior concerns of the lower jaw

submandibular glands

____ _____ located below the floor of the mouth

sublingual glands

no digestion takes place, its only function is swallowing

pharynx

the reflex center for swallowing is in the ____

medulla

____ is when the tongue pushes the food towards the pharnx

swallowing

the ____ contracts and propels the food into the esophagus

pharynx

peristalsis of the ____ propels food towards the stomach

esophagus

___ is a muscular tube that takes food from the pharynx to the stomach

esophagus

back up of food from the stomach to the esophagus is prevented by the lower esophageal _____, if this does not close sufficently you get splash back into the esophagus, which is called ____

sphincter heartburn

serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs

mesentery

serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity

peritoneum

peritoneum and mesentery is actually a _____ membrane

continuous

___ is located in the upper left quad of the abdominal cavity, to left of the liver and in front of the spleen

stomach

the stomach is a reservior for ___

food

the stomach is where both _____ and _____ digestion takes place

mechanical and chemical

in the stomach the ____ is the opening of the esophagus

orifice

in the stomach the ____ is the portion above the level of this opening

fundus

___ ____ surrounds the junction of the duodenum and the pylorus

pyloric sphincter

most digestion takes place in the ____

pylrous

backup of food from the small intestines is prevented by the ____ ____

pyloric sphincter

____ are folds that fill and flatten and permit explanison without tearing

rugae

___ ___ are secreted by the stomach, its a parasympathetic response

gastric juices

part of the gastric juices that protects the stomach lining is ___

mucus

part of the gastric juice that begins the digestion of protein is ____

pepsin

one of the function of the stomach is that its a ____ for food during digestion

reservoir

one of the function of the stomach is that is permits ____ to take place gradually

digestion

one on the functions of the stomach is it begins the digestion of ____

proteins

one inch in diameter and about twenty feet long, extends from the stomach to the cecum of the large intestines

small intestines

____ is the first part of the small intestines, common bile duct opens here

duodenum

the common bile duct carries the ___ and the ___ ___

bile pancreatic juice

what are the parts of the small intestines?

duodenum, jujunum and the ileum

digestion is completed in the ___ ___ and the end products of digestion are absorbed into the ___ and the ___

small intestines blood lymph

what are the three sources of digestive secretions that function within the small intestines?

liver, pancreas, and small intestines

surface area for absorption is increased in the small intestines by ___ and the ___

circulars villi

the digestive organ that extends from the stomach to the colon

small intestines

upper right and the center of the abdominal cavity

liver

in the liver its only digestive function is the production of ___

bile

___is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder

bile

the ___ duct takes the bile out of the liver to cystic duct, which unites with the common bile duct which then takes the bile to the ___

hepatic duodenum

the common bile duct opens up into the ___

duodenum

the digestive function of bile is to emulsify ___ in the small intestines

fats

the production of bile is stimulated by the ___ ___, which is produced by the duodenum when food enters the small intestines

hormone secretion

___ is located on the under surface of the right lobe of the liver

gallbladder

the gallbladder ___ bile from the liver until it is needed by the small intestines

stores

_____ stimulates contractions in the gallbladder which then secrete the bile into the small intestines

cholecystokinin

what are the functions of the gallbladder?

stores bile, concentrate bile, and contract to propel bile to the duodenum

bile enters and leaves the gallbladder by way of the ___ ___

cystic duct

___ is located between the duodenum and the spleen

pancreas

in the pancreas the ____ glands produce enzymes that are involved in digestion

exocrine

pancreatic enzyme ___ digests starch to maltose

amylase

____ converts fats to fatty acids and glyceral

lipase

____ and ___ digests proteins

trypsin and pepsin

___ digests disacharides

sucrose

the enzymes of the pancreas contribute to the digestion of ___ ___ and ___

proteins, fats and starches

___ digest starch

amylase

___ digest lactose

lactase

___ helps digest proteins

peptidase

___ helps digest fats

lipase

when chyme enters the small intestines ___ stimulates the production of bicarb juices by the pancreas

secretin

_____ stimulates the secretion of the pancreatic enzymes

cholecystokinin

____ are digested by enzymes from the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestines

carbohydrates

____ are digested by enzymes from the stomach, pancreas and small intestines

proteins

___ is increase secretion of intestinal enzymes is stimulated by food in the duodenum

absorption

the intestinal enzymes are ____, _____, _____, and _____

peptidase sucrose maltose and lactose

peptidase digest proteins by breaking polypeptides to ___ ____

amino acids

sucrose maltose and lactose digest _____

disacchrides

most absorption of the end products takes place in the ___ ____

small intestines

surface area of absorption is increase in the small intestines by _____, ___ ____, and ____

microvilli, plica circulars, and villia

water soluble nutrients are absorbed into the ___ in the capillary networks

blood

an example of water soluble vitamin that is absorbed in the capillary networks by active transport is ____

glucose

water moves in the capillaries by ____

osmosis

negative ions move by ____ or ____ tranport

passive r active

nutrients are absorbed into either ____ or ____ networks within the villi

lacteals capillary

fat solubles end products are absorbed in the ____

lacteals

water soluble end products are absorbed in the ___ ___

capillary networks

___ from the capillary networks travel first to through the portal veins of the liver before returning to the heart

blood

large intestines is also called the ___

colon

the ___ extends from the illeum to the anus

colon

___ is the digestive organ that encircles the small intestines

colon

___ is the part of the colon which the small intestines empty

cecum

the cecum junctions with the illeum at the ____ valve

ileocecal

closure of this valve prevents the backflow of fecal material

ileocecal valve

___ is attached to the cecum

appendix

____ is when fecal material becomes impacted within it

appendicitis

no digestion takes place in the ____

colon

remainder of the colon consists of ____, ______, and _____

ascending transverse and descending

part of the colon that surrounds the anus is the __ ___

anal canal

____ colon is directly inferior to the stomach and liver

transverse

____ ___ turns medially at the level of the pelvic bone

sigmoid colon

the functions of the colon are : absorption of ___, absorption of ___ and ____ , and ___ of undigested materials

water vitamins minerals elimination

vitamins in the colon especially vitamin __ are produced in the colon by the normal bacterial flora

K

___ ___ also inhibits the growth of pathogens

normal flora

elimination is accomplished by ____ ____

defecation reflex

___ ____ is a spinal cord reflex that may be controlled voluntarily

defecation reflex

the stimulus of the defecation relex is ___ of the retum

stretching

the effector of the defecation reflex is the rectum when it ____

contracts

___ ___ ____ it relaxes permitting defecation, involuntary

internal anal sphincter

___ ___ ___ surrounds the internal anal sphincter, voluntary control of defecation by contracing

external anal sphincter

__ is a remarkable organ only 2nd to the brain in its capacity of functions

liver

the liver stores the minerals ___ and ____

iron and copper

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