Review question for 5, 6, 7 ch. Social Psych

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2. Jim decides to change his answer on his math homework after his friends explain to him why his original answer was incorrect. This is an example of
a. normative influence.
b. informational influence.
c. obedience
d. reactance.

b. informational influence.

1. When participants in Milgram's experiments wanted to quit, they were given
a. shocks to keep them going.
b. money as an incentive to keep going.
c. up to four verbal prods to keep them going.
d. a reward for being one of the few to disobey.

c. up to four verbal prods to keep them going.

3. Even though you really dislike wearing a dress, you decide to wear one to your cousin's wedding. This is an example of
a. obedience.
b. acceptance.
c. conformity.
d. compliance.

d. compliance.

4. When Milgram conducted his first series of experiments with a sample of 20- to 50-year-old men, he found that over 60 percent of them
a. refused to deliver shocks beyond 150 volts.
b. refused to deliver shocks past the 300-volt level.
c. went all the way to 450 volts.
d. asked to be released from the experiment by 135 volts.

c. went all the way to 450 volts.

5. After hearing so much about the dangers of smoking cigarettes from the media and seeing numbers of people who quit the habit, Jacob finally realizes that smoking is dangerous and therefore he quits. His behavior is an example of
a. obedience.
b. acceptance.
c. reactance.
d. compliance

b. acceptance.

6. A classmate across the room yawns and then several other students yawn. This is an example of
a. informational influence.
b. psychological reactance.
c. group cohesion.
d. the chameleon effect.

d. the chameleon effect.

7. While control participants were correct about line-length judgments more than 99 percent of the time in Asch's conformity study, his naive participants conformed to the incorrect judgments of others ___ percent of the time.
a. 12
b. 37
c. 65
d. 87

b. 37

8. In a variation of the Milgram study, teachers were required to force the learner's hand into contact with a shock plate. Under these conditions,
a. there was no change in resulting shocks.
b. there was a decrease in compliance to shock.
c. there was an increase in compliance to shock.
d. this study did not take place.

b. there was a decrease in compliance to shock.

9. In calling sports decisions, umpires and referees rarely change their decisions as a result of a player's objection. This may be an example of how
a. status produces psychological reactance.
b. a we-they feeling has evolved between professional sports players and officials.
c. the umpire or referee seeks to maintain emotional distance from players.
d. public commitment reduces susceptibility to social influence.

d. public commitment reduces susceptibility to social influence.

10. A concern for _______ produces normative influence, while a concern for _______ produces informational influence.
a. social image; being correct
b. being correct; social image
c. being correct; gaining status
d. social roles; authority figures

a. social image; being correct

11. Which of the following statements is TRUE of conformity and obedience?
a. They are primarily collectivistic phenomena.
b. They are primarily individualistic phenomena.
c. They are universal phenomena that vary by culture.
d. They are universal phenomena that are uninfluenced by culture.

c. They are universal phenomena that vary by culture.

12. High school students Aisha and Jared have been dating each other casually. When Aisha's parents tell her to stop seeing Jared and ask her to go out with "nicer boys," Aisha announces that she and Jared are actually "in love" and have decided to go steady. Aisha's behavior most likely illustrates the effects of
a. the false uniqueness effect.
b. the fundamental attribution error.
c. the self-serving bias.
d. psychological reactance.

d. psychological reactance.

13. Sherif's study of groups watching a pinpoint of light (autokinectic effect) indicated that
a. Americans conform less than do persons born in other countries.
b. social influence is strongest among friends rather than strangers.
c. group behavior can be predicted from individual behavior.
d. people conform when they face ambiguous situations.

d. people conform when they face ambiguous situations.

14. Milgram's experiment seems to have made use of which technique?
a. foot-in-the-door
b. role playing
c. door-in-the-face
d. the fundamental attribution error

a. foot-in-the-door

Zoe has lived in the United States all of her life, yet her Greek grandmother made sure that Zoe was fluent in the Greek language so she would understand the Greek way of life. What has Zoe's grandmother passed on to her?
a. a belief
b. a norm
c. a culture
d. a value

c. a culture

Seven-year-old Mary says "Thank you" after opening each birthday present she receives because her family considers it to be proper behavior. This best illustrates the influence of a
a. norm.
b. schema.
c. role.
d. stereotype.

a. norm.

Which statement about social norms is FALSE?
a. Social norms make social interactions run more smoothly.
b. Social norms cause us to feel uncomfortable when they are violated.
c. Social norms control us so successfully that we hardly sense their presence.
d. Social norms are not affected by culture.

d. Social norms are not affected by culture.

Although there are many unoccupied tables in the restaurant, Rudolph decides to sit at the same table in the chair right next to James. James feels uncomfortable because Rudolph has violated
a. his social role.
b. his personal space.
c. Brown's universal norm.
d. the personal rights taboo.

b. his personal space.

Research on the Big Five personality traits have been shown to be universal. Which is NOT one of the five?
a. shy
b. open
c. agreeable
d. conscientious

a. shy

Pratto and her colleagues (1997) reported that _______ tend to gravitate toward jobs that reduce inequalities, such as a public defender.
a. the young
b. the elderly
c. men
d. women

d. women

According to research on gender differences, which statement is NOT true?
a. Women are more skilled at expressing emotions nonverbally.
b. Women smile more than men.
c. Women describe themselves as having more empathy than men.
d. Women are more vulnerable to autism.

d. Women are more vulnerable to autism.

Women's wages in industrial nations are ___ percent of men's.
a. 80 - 100%
b. 70 - 90%
c. 50 - 70%
d. 30 - 50%

b. 70 - 90%

Which is NOT a worldwide gender difference found by research?
a. aggressiveness
b. dominance
c. sexuality
d. ageism

d. ageism

Evolutionary psychologists suggest that males are sexually assertive while females are more selective of sexual partners because
a. males outnumber females.
b. each strategy is likely to promote gene survival.
c. males and females are socialized differently.
d. of differences in brain chemistry.

b. each strategy is likely to promote gene survival.

Higher than normal levels of testosterone have been found in
a. violent male criminals.
b. male lawyers.
c. gay men.
d. married men.

a. violent male criminals.

One dramatic finding from developmental psychology (Plomin & Daniels, 1987) is that two children in the same family are, on average,
a. as different from one another as two children selected at random.
b. more likely to share the same general personality characteristics than two children selected at random.
c. completely uninfluenced by their genetic heritage.
d. likely to share the same IQ.

a. as different from one another as two children selected at random.

Anthropologists argue that if we could trace our ancestors back 100,000 years or more, we would see that we are all
a. Asians.
b. Americans.
c. Europeans.
d. Africans

d. Africans

1. Suzy is interested in purchasing a DVD player, and is overwhelmed by the many different models available at her local electronics store. She decides to purchase a shiny, metallic-looking model, as it is the best-looking one in the store. Suzy has been persuaded to purchase this particular DVD player because of the _______ route to persuasion.
a. peripheral
b. central
c. logical
d. image

a. peripheral

2. Central route processing often _____ explicit attitudes.
a. has no effect on
b. swiftly changes
c. slowly changes
d. never changes

b. swiftly changes

3. If people remember the message better than the reason for discounting it, the impact of a noncredible person may _______ over time.
a. change
b. stay the same
c. Increase
d. decrease

c. Increase

4. You are attending a lecture by a banker and you expect her to advocate bank savings accounts. However, she advocates stock investments instead. Since her message goes against her own self-interest, you perceive her as _______ and the message as _______.
a. sincere; persuasive
b. insincere; not persuasive
c. sincere; not persuasive
d. insincere; persuasive

a. sincere; persuasive

5. When a choice concerns matters of personal value or ways of life, _______ communicators have more influence.
a. attractive
b. expert
c. similar
d. disinterested

c. similar

6. What is the effect of a fear-arousing communication?
a. Fear renders a communication ineffective.
b. Generally the more frightened people are, the more they respond.
c. Evoking a low level of fear is effective, but producing a high level of fear is not.
d. Fear appeals are effective with women but boomerang with men.

b. Generally the more frightened people are, the more they respond.

7. Studies have shown that if people are aware of opposing arguments, a _______ presentation is more persuasive and enduring.
a. one-sided
b. two-sided
c. discrepant
d. clear and unambiguous

b. two-sided

8. When two messages are back to back, followed by a time gap, the _______ effect usually occurs.
a. recency
b. primacy
c. channel
d. sleeper

b. primacy

9. People tend to have different social and political attitudes depending on their age because attitudes change as people grow older. This refers to the _______ explanation for how age plays a role in persuasion.
a. generational
b. life cycle
c. age
d. time

b. life cycle

10. Darla wants to persuade her parents to help pay for a study trip abroad. She will have a more difficult time succeeding if
a. her parents are forewarned of her intent to convince them.
b. she has the trip coordinator call to reassure them.
c. her parents are not particularly analytical.
d. her parents have a moderate level of self-esteem.

a. her parents are forewarned of her intent to convince them.

11. Macy prefers classes with professors who are visually appealing and entertaining, rather than classes with professors who are knowledgeable and effective communicators. Macy is probably _______ in the need for cognition.
a. low
b. average
c. high
d. slightly above average

a. low

12. A cult has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
a. a distinctive ritual and beliefs that are related to its devotion to a god or a person.
b. the use of mind-altering drugs.
c. isolation from the surrounding culture.
d. a charismatic leader

b. the use of mind-altering drugs.

13. The _____-route process is more likely to lead to long-term attitude and behavior changes than is the _____-route process.
a. cognitive; emotional
b. internal; external
c. central; peripheral
d. peripheral; central

c. central; peripheral

14. Ted is most likely to elicit opinion change from an audience whose opinion is greatly discrepant from his own if Ted
a. is credible.
b. uses a fear arousing message.
c. first puts them in a good mood.
d. uses a one-sided argument.

a. is credible.

15. _____ exposes people to weak attacks on their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they have refutations available.
a. Attitude reactance
b. Central route persuasion
c. Attitude inoculation
d. Peripheral route persuasion

c. Attitude inoculation

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