the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
state of internal tension brought about by conflicting attitudes and behavior....we often change our attitudes to coincide with our behavior, and thus, reduce the internal discomfort
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Central Route to Persuasion
occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find the arguments compelling.
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
occurs when people do not scrutinize the message but are influenced mostly by other factors such as a speaker's attractiveness or a message's emotional appeal.
normal or customary activity of a person in a particular social setting
changing one's behavior to fit into an assigned position or situation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
people who have a lot come up with reasons to justify why others are in a bad position
The social group in which you perceive yourself as belonging.
any group that a person does not belong to or identify with
the tendency to favor one's own group
the tendency of poeple to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
when something is vivid in our minds, we tend to think that it happens more than it really does; this can lead to prejudice
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression
mental tapes for how to act, provided by our culture
Mere Exposure Effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
an aroused state of intense positive attraction to another person, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish concern for the welfare of others; selflessness
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Diffusion of Responsibility
reduction in sense of responsibility often felt by individuals in a group; may be responsible for the bystander effect
Social Exchange Theory
our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
Social Responsibility Norm
the idea that we should care for those dependent on us
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation