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Pruritis

Itching: Most common of the skin syptoms; occurs with dry skin, aging, drug reactions, allergy, obstructive jaundice, uremia, and lice.

Diaper Rash or Diaper Dermatitis

Red, moist maculopapular patch with poorly defined borders in diaper area, extending along inguinal and gluteal folds. History of infrequent diaper changes or occlusive coverings. Inflammatory disease caused by skin irritation from ammonia, heat, moisture, occlusive diapers

Sun Burn

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Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

Small grouped vesicles emerge along route of cutaneous sensory nerve, then pustules, then crusts. Caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), a reactivation of the dormant virus of chickenpox. Acute appearance, practically always unilateral, does not cross midline. Commonly on trunk, can be anywhere. If on ophthalmic branch of cranial nerve V, it poses risk to eye. Most common in adults more than 50 years old. Pain is often severe and long lasting in aging adults.

Purpura

Confluent and extensive patch of petechiae and ecchymoses, >3 mm flat, red to purple, macular hemorrhage. Seen in generalized disorders such as thrombocytopenia and scurvy. Also occurs in old age as blood leaks from capillaries in response to minor trauma and diffuses through dermis.

Petechiae

Tiny punctate hemorrhages, 1 to 3 mm, round and discrete, dark red, purple, or brown in color. Caused by bleeding from superficial capillaries; will not blanch. May indicate abnormal clotting factors. In dark-skinned people, petechiae are best visualized in the areas of lighter melanization (e.g., the abdomen, buttocks, and volar surface of the forearm). When the skin is black or very dark brown, petechiae cannot be seen in the skin.

Hematoma

is a collection of blood that is often but not always caused by blunt force trauma; A localized collection of extravasated blood, usually clotted in an organ, space, or tissue.

Ecchymosis

A hemorrhagic spot or blotch, larger than petechia, in the skin or mucous membrane, forming a nonelevated, rounded or regular, blue or purplish patch.

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