Diseases and Conditions: Endocrine System Ch 4

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Key Terms

Acidosis

A pathological condition resulting from an abnormal increase in the level of hydrogen ions in the body (decreasing in pH) resulting from the accumulation of acid or loss of the alkaline reserve

Corticotropin

Produced: Hypothalamus. Effects: Anterior Pituitary. Function: Release of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

epiphyseal

Growth plate, cartilage between primary and secondary ossification centers, site of active growth, gradually ossifies.

gonadotropin

GnRH, is secreted by the hypothalmus, affects the anterior pituitary, and its target organs are the testis and the ovaries function

hyperglycemia

A condition in which too much sugar is in the bloodstream, resulting in higher than normal BGL's; also known as high blood glucose.

Hyperkalemia

An abnormally high concentration of potassium ions in the blood; high potassium..>5.0 meq. Can cause cardiac rhythm problems

Hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

panhypopituitarism

Condition in which the entire pituitary glands ceases to function and is not producing pituitary hormones.

Polydipsia

condition of having excessive thirst.
Symptom of Diabetes Insipidus.

Polyphagia

excessive hunger; your cells aren't getting any glucose (cells are starving to death) - excessive hunger.

Polyuria

Excessive urination
, > 2000ml of urine in 24 hours.
Symptom of Diabetes Insipidus.

pruritis

Medical term for itching.

radioimmunoassay

radiology used to detect the concentration of an antigen or antibody or other protein in the serum.
, Test combines radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect minute quantities of substances in a patient's blood.

somatotroin

Growth Hormone (GH) secreted by the anterior pituitary .

thyrotoxicosis

Abnormal condition of thyroid gland - A toxic condition caused by hyperactivity of the Thyroid gland.

thyrotropin

Origin: Hypothalamus
, signals the pituitary gland to release TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone).

thyroxine

Also called thryoid hormone, thyroxine is produced and secreted by follicle cells in the thyroid gland. it targets all cells in the body and increases overall body metabolism.

triiodothyronine

(T3) Secreted by thyroid; regulate the rate of metabolism, helps regulate growth and development, and body temperature.

vasopresin

Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that causes the retention of water by the kidney - aka ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone)

Pituitary Gland Diseases

Hyperpituitarism
Vasopressin; causes artery and arteriole to conntract, reapsorption of water in tubules.
Acromegaly, Giantism, Dwarfism, Diabetes Insipidus, Simmonds Disease.

Hypopituitarism

condition of diminished hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland.
, This is a condition marked by metabolic dysfunction, sexual immaturity, & growth retardation when it occurs in childhood; Simmonds' disease & DI are examples of this.

Diabetes Insipidus

DISORDER MARKED BY EXCESSIVE URINATION DUE TO LACK OF SECRETION OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE

Thyroid Gland Diseases

Group of disorders caused by increased or decreased production of thyroid hormones.
, Cretinism, Myxedema, Grave's disease, Goiter, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Hypothyroidism

-Deficiency of TH resulting in a slow down of body metabolism.
, -Slow metabolic rate, Wt gain, hypothermia, bradycardia, sensitivity to cold, fatigue. Puffiness of hands and face.

Thyroid Cancer

Most common endocrine malignancy, but also most rare; causal risk factor is exposure to ionizing radiation, especially exposure during childhood and puberty.
, - Caused when abnormal thyroid cells multiple rapidl

Parathyroid Disease

-Parathyroid disease symptoms all related to calcium levels (too high or too low).
Hyperparathyroidism - break down of the bone due to demineralization

Adrenal Gland Diseases

Addison Disease and Cushing Syndrome
-tumor causes excessive production of estrogen and androgen

Endocrine Dysfunction of the Pancreas

Diabetes Mellitus
Gestational Diabetis
Hypoglycemia

Precocious Puberty

The very early onset and rapid progression of puberty
before the age of 9 in males and before the age of 8 in females

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