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Biology Campbell Reese

evolution

descent with modification; idea that living species are descendants of ancestors that were different from present-day organisms; change in genetic composition of a population from generation to generation

biology

scientific study of life

emergent properties

new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases

reductionism

reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study

systems biology

an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems; allows for predictions when one variable of a component changes

eukaryotic

a type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; organisms with these cells include protists, plants, fungi, and animals

prokaryotic

a type of cell lacking both a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; bacteria and archaea

DNA

double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine

genome

entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits

bioinformatics

the use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that result from high-throughput methods

negative feedback

the most common form of regulation; accumulation of an end product slows its own processing

positive feedback

process in which an end product speeds up its own production

animalia, fungi, plantae, protista, monera

five kingdoms

archaea, bacteria, eukarya

three domains

Charles Darwin

person who believed in 1) descent with modification--captures unity and diversity, and 2) natural selection--causes evolution as the unequal reproductive successes of individuals adapts the population to its environment

data

recorded observations; can be quantitative or qualitative

inductive reasoning

a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations (specific >>> general)

deductive reasoning

a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise (general >>> specific)

controlled experiment

an experiment that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group; ideally, the only difference between the groups is part of what is being tested

model

a representation of a theory or process; may take form of a graph, diagram, 3D object, computer program, or mathematical equation

adaptation

any structure, behavior, or internal process that helps an individual to better survive and/or reproduce

altruism

the assistance given to one organism by another, even if the act of giving puts the survival of the assisting organism at risk

Sir Richard Dawkins

the person who believed in altruism as the illustration of "the selfish gene"

atoms, biomolecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere

levels of biological organization (from simple to complex)

energy processing, evolutionary adaptation, growth and development, order, regulation, reproduction, response to environment

characteristics of life (7, in alphabetical order)

order

a characteristic of life; highly detailed and organized structure

regulation

a characteristic of life; maintenance of homeostasis

energy processing

a characteristic of life; consuming matter, storing energy, using energy

evolutionary adaptation

a characteristic of life; natural selection/descent with modification

growth and development

a characteristic of life; genes control life patterns

response to environment

a characteristic of life; an organism's interaction with its surroundings

reproduction

a characteristic of life; the creation of new life from pre-existing life

atom

the smallest unit of matter on Earth

biomolecules

combinations of atoms; examples include lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, ATP

organelles

combinations of biomolecules; nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane

cells

combinations of organelles; the first unit of life

tissues

combinations of cells; types include nervous, muscular, fat, blood

organs

combinations of more than one type of tissue

organ systems

group of organs that work together

organism

the simultaneous and interdependent functioning of various organ systems

population

group of organisms of a single specie in a localized area

community

all populations of all species in a localized area

ecosystem

the community plus abiotic factors; also includes interactions between biotic and abiotic components

biosphere

wherever on Earth that there is life

abiotic factors

components that affect an ecosystem; examples include temperature, rainfall, sunlight, wind, and soil

symbiosis

when two organisms live in close/tight relationships with each other

parasitism

a type of symbiosis in which one organism acts as a parasite and the other as a host

mutualism

a type of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit from the relationship

commensualism

a type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits from the relationship while the other is neither helped nor harmed

cell theory

proponents include 1) all living things are made of cells; 2) cells are the basic unit of life; 3) cells only come from other cells; established by Schleiden and Schwann

energy

the ability to do work; all life needs a constant supply of this

sunlight, producers, consumers

pattern of energy flow

autotrophs

organisms that create their own food

heterotrophs

organisms that eat other organisms for energy

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specie

traditional taxonomy

animalia

characteristics of this kingdom: heterotrophic, eukaryotic, multicellular, no cell walls

fungi

characteristics of this kingdom: heterotroph, eukaryotic, multicellular, cell walls (chitin)

plantae

characteristics of this kingdom: autotroph, eukaryotic, multicellular, cell walls (cellulose)

protista

characteristics of this kingdom: both autotrophic and heterotrophic, eukaryotic, unicellular but with some multicellular, some have cell walls while some do not

monera

characteristics of this kingdom: both autotrophic and heterotrophic, prokaryotic, unicellular, cell walls (peptidoglycam or murein)

extreme thermophiles

type of archaea; can survive boiling water, thrive near geysers

extreme halophiles

type of archaea; loves high salt concentrations

methanogens

type of archaea; poisoned by oxygen, live in waterlogged soils, swamps, produce methane gas

prokaryotic

1) contains ribosomes >> proteins; 2) no endoplasmic reticulum; 3) no membrane-bound organelles; 4) one circular chromosome; 5) bacteria; 6) about 10 times smaller; 7) no nucleus (DNA floats around)

eukaryotic

1) contains ribosomes >> proteins; 2) contains endoplasmic reticulum; 3) all organelles are membrane-bound; 4) multiple, linear chromosomes; 5) everything besides bacteria; 6) about 10 times larger; 7) membrane-enclosed nucleus

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