Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).
He thought people could receive salvation only through personal faith and the grace of God (faith led to salvation). He publicly challenged the selling of indulgences?
Christine de Pizan
She was highly educated; one of the first women to earn a living as a writer (short stories, biographies, novels, and manuals on military techniques) She was one of the first European writers to question different treatment of boys and girls.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian Renaissance artist that painted The Last Supper and Mona Lisa, he was also an engineer, architect, sculptor, and scientist.
Italian Renaissance artist that painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling and sculpted the statue of David.
Dutch (northern) humanist scholar who studied early Christian as well as classical culture (both). He criticized the Church.
Leading literary figure (English) of the time, he also transformed well-known stories into dramatic masterpieces and wrote plays that focused on human emotions.
pardons from punishments for sin
He emphasized predestination and righteous living (high moral standards). He also set up a theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland (1536).
One of the first humanists, studied classical writers, believed it is important to lead a full and active life here on earth (but worried about salvation).
The name for the movement by the Catholic Church to make changes within itself.
French people, including high ranking nobles who converted to Calvinism.
Movement following the Middle Ages (beginning in the 1300's) that centered on the revival of the interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome.
People who specialize in studying the grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric. Taught life should be meaningful. Displayed a critical approach to learning.
Technique used by artists to create the illusion of depth by making distant objects smaller.
Henry VIII's desire for a divorce caused him to create the Anglican Church.
Why was the Anglican Church formed?
Where did the Renaissance begin?
The invention of the printing press
How did Luther's ideas spread so quickly?
Edict of Nantes
gave religious freedom and some political rights to the Huguenots
A government ruled by religious leaders (ex. the city of Geneva, 1536).
Founded by Ignatius de Loyola (1534), they were a religious order that spread Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation.
The major results of the Protestant Reformation
1. diversity of churches; 2. education increased; 3. national governments (kings and queens) gained power
standard of living
measure of the quality of life; affected by environment, health, home life, income, and working conditions; increased in Europe for peasants during the Renaissance
Books that included info about weather and predictions for crops, included maps, calendars, and medical advice. They especially appealed to the commoners
(early 1500s) Influenced by the writings of Erasmus, he called for religious reform in Switzerland. He died in a battle between Catholics and Protestants
societies of a few people usually led by a preacher (1520's and 1530's)
List major results of the Crusades
1. Weapons and warfare - new ways to wage war; 2. Political changes - fewer lords, stronger kings, end of feudalism, more powerful Christian church; 3. Ideas and trade - new ideas and trade patterns.
Pope Leo X
He labeled Martin Luther a heretic and excommunicated him.
Diet of Worms
A meeting summoned by Charles V that commanded Martin Luther to abandon his ideas. Luther refused and was branded an outlaw.
Lorenzo de Medici
A leader of Florence, he used his power and wealth to become a great patron of the arts (helping to grow the Renaissance).
studies intended to provide general knowledge and intellectual skills (rather than occupational or professional skills)
He presented images of contemporary society with a critical and often ironic view. His work is much more sophisticated and wide-ranging, weaving together the whole spectrum of late medieval literature and life. He was a successful courtier which gave him opportunities to travel. His mastery of the whole heritage of the medieval culture and his independent use of that heritage has proven himself to be the greatest English writer before Shakespeare.
wrote the The Divine Comedy (a book about the 3 levels of the Afterlife)
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
a sum of money given by the wife's family to the husband upon marriage
Centered in Italy, reformation of religion, a new beginning, a rebirth of classical learning proior to the middle ages, beginng of secular views of the people. People began to dress extravegently, focus on personal hygene, and have a sense of personal pride.
one who gives support (usually financialy) to an artist. They often commision works of their family heritage or to flaunt their wealth to the rest of society. Medici family of Italy is a good example of a patron.
1452-1519, The true Renaissance man, a painter, engineer, scientist, inventor and sculptor. Most famous for the Mona Lisa, great facial expressions, Ginerva de' Benchi, Madonna of the Rocks, and the Last Supper.
One of the great Italian artists. He was known as a master. He not only painted portraits, but also designed buildings, wrote poetry, and painted murals on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. Some of his famous statues include the Moses, la pieta (in the Vatican), and the David.
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468) Printed the first bible in the vernacular. Leads to people questioning the church because now they could read scripture. People became literate and exploration was made possible (printing of maps). Propoganda becomes possible and books are cheaper and easier to find. Also laws became easier to follow and well known through the country. Caused ideas to spread more rapidly.
(theology) being determined in advance,(theology) the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
Ignatius of Loyola
Founder of the Jesuits
Catholic Church Weakens
People began to question church due to the renaissance and the invention of the printing press. The people involved in the Reformation began to question church teachings, authority, immorality in church leaders, incompetent leaders, possible lies being told to the people, extravagence (mainly the pope), clurical pluralism (holding many positions at the same time), and dominance. They wanted the church to practice what they preached. Luther was a huge player in the reformation of the Catholic church.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. Luther lead the reformation with ideas like salvation can be achieved by faith alone, the bible is the true authority, no one is closer to God than anyone else, the people ARE the church, the wanting of no pope or priests, vernacular services (not in latin), the acceptance of priests being married, and the rejection of the Transubstantions (the changing of the elements to blood and flesh, signifying Jesus' life here on earth.
The doctrine that is based off of the ideals and beliefs set forth by Martin Luther; Lutheranism went against the papal authority of the Church. Lutherans believed justification by faith alone.
A movement towards individual advancement and the belief in the human spirit. Came about during the Italian Renaissance and provided room for the begingins of secular humanism.
North vs. South Renaissance
Northern: Began in Flanders (Wealthy merchant families lived in modern Netherlands), people tired of paying so much for goods from Italy, England and France both had good monarchs that were unifying their countries, and artists were escaping the war in Italy. In this time, artists were more intrested in realism and their portraits looked very photographic. Often the paintings were of everyday life. The northern humanists based their social reform on christin ideals and an ethical way of life. Southern: began after the crusades ended. At this time, feudalsim and manorialsim were the accepted social systems and the people allowed the Catholic church to govern them. People began to question the church and this rebellious age began the reformation of the church. People began to paint and study clssical literature and revert to old (Latin and Greek) ways. Itlay was the main center for the renaissance becasue people were feeing to Italy to escape the crusades. Secularism and humanism views began to emerge.
A person who is successful when it comes to working, and overall universal, knew how to dance, fight, sing, write poetry, and how to create art, and well educated with the classics.
Effects of the printing press
people questioned the church because now they could read scripture. People became literate and exploration was made possible (printing of maps). Propoganda becomes possible and books are cheaper and easier to find. Also laws became easier to follow and well known through the country. Caused ideas to spread more rapidly.
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564), religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society, religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
Cultural blending happens when dif. cultures interact with each other and mix. An example of this is the safavid empire. The Safavid empire grew from Persian, ottoman, and arab traditions. Blending begins at continental crossroads, trade routed/posts, and borders and is caused by migration, pursuit of religous freedom, trade, and conquest. Societies benefit only if they are willing to change and adapt. This leads to changes in language, religion, gov. styles, technology use, military tactics, racial or ethnic blending, and arts and architecture.
The spirit of the Renaissance casued people to want to explore and recieve the Glory and gold, and spread christianity.
The dutch had the largest navy at the time and also wanted to vie for power. They founded the Dutch East India Company which was allowed to create their own army, coin money, and make treaties.
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
30 years war
(1618-1648) This Bourbon vs. Habsburg War resulted from a conflict between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League in the Holy Roman Empire. Major French players included Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin.
everyday language of ordinary people
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal. These views were caused by the Renaissance.
Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
Edict of Worms
declared Martin Luther an outlaw within the empire and his works were to be burned and luther himself captured and delivered to the emperor
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Oldest daughter of Henry VIII. Queen of England from 1553-58. Known for her ruthless, deadly suppression of the Anglicanism in attempting to re-Catholicize England. She married Spain's Philip II. England was more protestant at the end of her reign.
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.