What is Anatomy?
-Study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another.
What is physiology?
-concerns the functioning of the body.
What are the subdivisions of anatomy?
Gross/macroscopic, microscopic, developmental
Give examples of Gross/macroscopic, microscopic, and developmental anatomy.
-Gross/macroscopic: Regional(One region/ body part at a time), surface, and systemic(whole systems at a time) anatomy
-microscopic: cytology (study of cells), Histology(study of tissues)
-developmental: embryology (The study of changes, not just embryology, but cradle to grave)
What is the principle of complementarity of structure and function?
-Form fits function. Things are shaped to do the job the do.
What are observation, manipulation, palpitation, and auscultation?
-Techniques used in examination and in A&P to examine the body. Observation: seeing, Palpitation: feeling with the hands, manipulation:moving, working joints and other parts, auscultation: listening
How does physics relate to Physiology?
Physiology rest on principles of physics, which help to explain electrical currents, blood pressure, and the way that muscles and bones cause movement among other things.
What are the subdivisions of Physiology based on?
Subdivisions are based on organ systems (e.g., renal, or cardiovascular physiology.)
List the levels of structural organization.
From lowest to highest: chemical (atoms and molecules), cellular (cells and their organelles), tissue (groups of similar cells), organs (groups of two or more—four is common—tissues, organ system ( organs that work closely together to perform a certain function.), Organismal (all organ systems, the organism.)
What are the four basic types of tissues?
epithelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nervous tissue.
Name the eight necessary Life functions (characteristics of life)
1. Maintain boundaries between internal and external environments(plasma membranes, skin)
2.Movement (Contractility) of body parts—skeletal muscles—and of substances—cardiac/smooth muscles.
3.Responsiveness: the ability to sense and respond to stimuli (withdrawal reflex, control of breathing rate)
5.Metabolism: all chemical reactions that occur in body cells (catabolism:destructive, and anabolism: constructive)
6.Excretion: The removal of waste from metabolism and digestion (urea, CO2, feces)
7.Reproduction (Both cell division and offspring)
8. Growth: increase in body parts or organism.
List the survival needs of organisms. (There are five)
Nutrients, Oxygen, water, Normal body temperature, appropriate atmospheric pressure.
List the 11 organ systems of the body.
(Integumentary, skeletal, muscle, ) (Lymphatic, respiratory, digestive,) (nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular), (urinary, reproductive )
List the organs of the Integumentary system.
Hair, skin, and nails.
List the organs of the skeletal system.
Bones, Joints, cartilage
List the organs of the muscle system.
List the organs of the lymphatic system.
Red bone marrow, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes.
List the organs of the respiratory system.
Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lungs
List the organs of the digestive system.
oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus.
List the organs of the nervous system.
spinal cord, nerves, brain.
List the organs of the endocrine system.
Pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovary/testis
List the organs of the cardiovascular system.
heart, blood vessels (arteries and veins)
List the organs of the urinary system.
kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
List the organs of the reproductive system.
-male: Prostate gland, Ductus deferens, penis, testis, scrotum
-female: mammary glands, ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina
What is homeostasis?
The ability to maintain relatively stable internal body conditions even though the outside world changes continuously. (Dynamic state of equilibrium.)
Communication that takes place as homeostatic control in the body is accomplished chiefly by what?
By the nervous system (neural electrical impulses) and the endocrine system(blood borne hormones)
What is the factor or event that is being regulated to maintain homeostasis called?
What component of the homeostatic control mechanisms is a sensor that monitors and detects stimuli?
Once the receptor detects the stimuli, it send a message to where and along what path?
The receptor sends a message to the control center along the afferent pathway.
Once the control center receives a message from the receptor, it sends a message to where and along what path?
to the effector along the efferent pathway.
The effector initiates what action?
response. In your body, there are only two types of effector cells. They are either muscle cells or gland cells. Your muscle cells can either relax or contact. Your gland cells can either secrete their products or not.
Name the two types of feedback mechanisms used in homeostatic control.
Positive feedback (aka. cascades), and negative feedback.
Why is a negative feedback system called"negative?"
These mechanisms cause the variable to change on the direction opposite to that of the initial change, returning it to it's ideal value.
Why is a positive feedback system called "positive?"
Also called cascades, positive feedback systems are called positive because the change that results from positive feedback is in the same direction as the initial change. P.F. Is rarely used to promote moment-to-moment well-being of the body.
Name two types of positive feedback responses.
Platelet plugs that form clots, and the release of oxytocin by the hypothalamus during labor to cause contractions. The clot ends the stimulus that attracts platelets and the birth ends the stimulus that releases oxytocin.
Give an example of negative feedback response.
The control of blood volume by the hypothalamus when it release antidiuretic hormone (ADH), causing the kidneys to reabsorb more water and return it to the blood stream.
What is homeostatic imbalance?
Disease that is caused by the disturbance of homeostasis.
What are some causes of Homeostatic imbalance?
lack of efficiency of the body's control systems due to old age, and another cause is when the usual negative feedback systems are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback systems take over.
Describe the anatomical position.
The body erect, facing the viewer, with the feet spread shoulder width apart and feet planted; the arms down by the sides with palms facing forward.
Homeostasis involves which of the following? Is it A) ranges of acceptable function or B) specific measurements of function?
A) ranges of acceptable function. Ranges of acceptable function generally characterize homeostasis because everyone is different and their ability to adapt will differ.
Are ranges of homeostatic regulation considered to be A) dynamic or B) static?
A) dynamic. Homeostatic ranges can fluctuate under different conditions. Therefore they are considered dynamic.
What is the term for the range of normal function? Is it A) set point or B) dynamic fluctuation?
A) set point. Within a range acceptable of normal function, homeostasis is maintained. This set point determines what homeostasis is for an individual.
n what type of homeostatic regulation does the response shut down after the normal range is achieved? Is it A) positive feedback or B) negative feedback?
B) negative feedback. Once the normal range has been achieved, the regulatory organ sends out a negative signal causing the response to shut down.
Which of the following is an example of a need for homeostatic regulation of body temperature? Would it be A) a cold shower or B) driving a car?
A) a cold shower. The stimulus signals that a response is needed to adapt to a new set of circumstances.
What decides what level of response must occur so that homeostasis can be re-established? Is it A) the effector or B) the control center?
B) the control center. Generally, decisions concerning responses are decided by the brain, the control center for homeostasis.
Which organ would be considered an effector? Would it be A) the brain or B) the adrenal gland?
B) the adrenal gland. The only effectors in the body are muscles and glands.
Labor contractions would be considered an example of what type of feedback? Would it be A) positive feedback or B) negative feedback?
A) positive feedback. The response accumulates until a dramatic change signals it to stop.