Second continental congress
Convention of delegates from 13 colonies. (Georgia did not initially send delegates to the second con. congress, and they completely ignored the first)
Here they wrote the Declaration of Independence.
They appointed George Washington to lead the Continental Army as general.
They Adopted the Olive Branch Petition in an attempt to prevent war. (rejected)
Richard Henry Lee
a Virginian representative in the Continental Congress that said, "these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states..." on June 7, 1776; after debate, the Congress officially adopted the motion a month later. They created the Declaration of Independence. He signed it
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
British and American troops poured into the Boston area. Americans killed over one thousand British soldiers and the British killed nearly four hundred. The Americans had to fled because they were nearly out of supplies. King George III suspended trade between Britain and the American colonies. American morale jumped, everyone was like, "lets go to war!" and they did.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
A formerly British General, he then led the colonists. He led a successful attack into Montreal, then on to Quebec. Montgomery's attack on Quebec failed and he was killed, thus, the whole invasion into Canada failed.
Took control of British forces in Boston.
He won(but lost more men)the battle of Bunker Hill.
He fought for and won both New York (long island) and Philadelphia.
British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777 (1722-1792)
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Barry St. Leger
Led British Army, Tried to take Fort Stanwix but American Benedict Arnold drove him back
Site of one of the bloodiest battles in the Revolution and a significant engagement of the Saratoga campaign. Loyalists and Native Americans fought against Patriots. St. Leger retreats after being abandoned by native americans.
Burgoyne was forced to surrender his command to this American general on October 17,1777 at the battle of Saratoga.
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
Joesph and Mary Brant
Loyalist who fought for and commanded British forces in deceisive battles. Connected to British authorities through his sister Mary, who was the consort of Sir William Johnson
Commanded patriotic forces that retaliated against the Iriquios and Brants for raiding white settlements. So he led several raids on Indian settlements causing a lot of them to flee to Canada.
Count de Vergennes
France's foreign minister who wanted evidence America could win before he backed them. After getting news of Saratoga, that was enough. He was persuaded by Ben Franklin. And also partially only agreed because he wanted Britian to weaken
The commander of the british forces who shifted the strategy to win the war in the south, he successfully captured charlestown in a major victory for the crown. Replaced William Howe as commander of British Forces.
George Rogers Clark
Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America
patriot who specialized in guerilla war fare. Atangonized the british during the rev. war with 2 other guys. Ft. sumter named after him. From south Carolina. Nicknamed Carolina gamecock. Became member of congress later. Born in viriginia. Most known for driving Cornwallis out of the Carolinas into Virginia.
Joined the militia when his home was destroyed by the British. Fought a the Battle of Cowpens.
South Carolina militia leader nicknamed the "Swamp Fox" for his hit-and-run attacks on the British during the American Revolution.
British commander in the South, penetrated Camden, South Carolina, met and crushed a Patriot force under Horatio Gates on August 16, 1780.
Quaker-raised American general who employed tactics of fighting and then drawing back to recover, then attacking again. Defeated Cornwallis by thus "fighting Quaker".
The area which British commander, Lord Cornwallis, defeated a patriot army of Horatio Gates
when Greene separated British troops into multiple contingents, one of them was ambushed, on January 17,1781, but when reinforcements arrived the Patriots were able to defeat the British at Guilford Court House, North Carolina.
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won!
Succeeded Lord North as prime minister after Cornwallis surrendered at yorktown.
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829) One of the authors of the Federalist Papers.
Treaty of Paris
Agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country Sept. 3 1793
Chief Dragging Canoe
leader of the Cherokee Indians, launched a series of attacks on outlying white settlements in the summer of 1776. Through battle and treaty, the Cherokee were forced to give up most of their land to the Americans.
"Remember the ladies"
In a letter written by Abigail Adams to John Adams in 1776, she wrote asking for him to make laws that would offer rights for women, not only men, protecting them against abusive and tyrannical men.
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
when Congress needed money for financing the war, they turned to the idea of printing more paper money, which was done by printing presses in many states, but the high inflation caused the money to be worthless.
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Marquis de Lafayette
He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in france but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.
Baron von Steuben
Prussian drill instructor; came over to the colonies to train and drill the rebels; worked with Washington's troops while they were waiting in Valley Forge
Statute of Religious Liberty
An act by Thomas Jefferson in 1786 called for complete separation of church and state in Virginia.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace
A General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Left British made arms on the fields of battle. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Treaty of Greenville
This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.
An American merchant and a signer to the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Significance: He played an important role in personally financing the American side in the Revolutionary War from 1781 to 1784. Hence, he came to be known as the 'Financier of the Revolution'.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt. Killed by Aaron Burr.
The idea of applying a 5 percent duty to fund the debt in America, but many were against giving Morris this much financial power, and Congress failed to approve it in both 1781 and 1783.
Mostly known for leading an army of farmers in Shays' Rebellion, which was a revolt against the state government of Massachusetts from 1786-1787, and a key event in the early history of the United States.Significance: His rebellion underscored the weakness of the Articles of Confederation and led to the formation of the United States Constitution.
This conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes.
Was another principal leader of the Massachusetts farmers who also sent rebels to advance on Springfield to seize weapons from the arsenal there.