Most of the 2 million-plus years during which our species has existed. Human beings learned only simple tool use (stone). During this time, humans spread over much of the Earth's surface.
Tools and implements increased. Animals domesticated.
The invention and spread of agriculture
Human patterns before the invention of writing
Signs: writing, agriculture, political states
Neolithic village in Southern Turkey
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
Egyptian civilization emerged in northern Africa along the Nile River by about 3000 B.C.E. It benefited from trade and influences from Mesopotamia, but it also produced its own distinct social structures and cultural expressions. Unlike Mesopotamia, Egyptian civilization featured very durable and centralized institutions. Mathematical achievements and impressive architectural structures also characterized Egyptian civilization.
Indian River Valley Civilization
A prosperous urban civilization emerged along the Indus River by 2500 B.C.E., supporting several large cities, including Harappa, whose houses had running water. Indus River peoples had trading contacts with Mesopotamia, but they developed a distinctive alphabet and artistic forms. Invasions by Indo-Europeans, however, resulted in such complete destruction of this culture that little is known about its subsequent influence.
Chinese River Valley Civilization
Civilization along the Huanghe River (Yellow River) in China developed in considerable isolation, though some overland trading contact developed with India and the Middle East. In addition to the existence of an organized state that carefully regulated irrigation in the flood-prone river valley, the Chinese had produced advanced technology and elaborate intellectual life by about 2000 B.C.E. There was also less of a break between Chinese river valley society and the later emergence of civilization in China than in any other case.
Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.
Term originally used to describe the people who resettled in the area of Judah following the Babylonian Exile; most commonly used to refer to followers of Judaism (monotheistic)
Basic unit of social organization among foragers, includes fewer than 100 people. Nomadic, small, mobile, kin-based groups with little differential power. Neolocal residence. minimal division of labor and gender stratification.
Hunting and gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Slash and burn agriculture
Fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
People with no permanent home; move from place to place in search of food
They extended their own empire and therefore helped bring civilization to the Middle East; Hammurabi introduced his code of law; it established rules of procedure for courts of law and regulated property rights and the duties of family members, setting harsh punishments for crimes
Pictures that suggest names of objects and events that became symbols
Displaced Shang Dynasty; alliances with regional princes and families (feudal system); overtook Yangtze River Valley (Middle Kingdom); invoked the "Mandate of Heaven"; Mandarin Chinese language; Confucious (philosopher)
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire. He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. Built the Great Wall and other public works
Imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
Most famous Han ruler; promoted peace; supported Confucianism
The dialect of Chinese spoken in Beijing and adopted as the official language for all of China
A sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
Mandate of Heaven
A political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Era of Warring States
Regional rulers made their own armies and fought for control; during this time Zhou Dynasty died;, 441-221 B.C.E. Feudal lords fight amongst each other for territory and power. Ethics of war are broken and new rules are less-gentlemen like.
A fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.
Members of the elite class of civil servants in Chinese government
People of the lowest status; did unskilled jobs; wore a green scarf to show their status; punished harsher for crimes;
A system of social organization built around authority and power of fathers
Chinese philosopher, based on relationships
Philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events (Harmony with nature!)
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)