When physical geographers speak of Earth's radiation balance, they mean that incoming ____ wave solar radiation must balance outgoing ____ wave terrestrial radiation.
What happens if there is no balance?
We either cook or freeze.
Are there areas where more terrestrial radiation leaves Earth than is supplied by the sub (deficit)? where?
yes, areas in the tropics and subtropics.
Why are latitudes of surplus not intolerably hot and latitudes of deficit NOT intolerably cold?
Because the atmosphere transfers energy between areas of surplus/deficit.
What atmospheric processes keep insolation from reaching Earth's surface?
ozone, scattering, cloud/surface reflection, atmosphere absorbs some.
Why is the sky blue?
Blue light is scattered/bounced around.
How do aerosols influence Earth's radiation balance?
aerosol will deflect incoming solar radiation.
Taken as a whole, about how much of that original solar radiation reaches Earth's surface?
What surfaces have a higher albedo? from high to low
snow, sand, grass, wet earth, forest, asphalt
What is the difference between sensible and latent heat flux?
latent heat is stored in evaporation and released in condensation. sensible heat is what you feel from thermal/long wave radiation.
A golf course rests right next to the asphalt parking lot. Both receive the same amount of insolation. Which surface TRANSFERS the most latent heat? why?
golf course does because of evaporation.
What processes release latent heat? What processes absorb latent heat?
evaporation/melting = store. condensation/freezing = release.
Why is it warmer at night when there is abundant humidity?
water vapor absorbs long wave radiation and re-radiates it back down to the planet.
Why is it warmer at night when it is cloudy?
the clouds absorb the long wave radiation and re-emit it towards earth.
Why does temperature decrease you go higher in the troposphere but increase as you go higher in the stratosphere?
heat from the earth heats the troposphere. The stratosphere is heated by the sun.
Are there areas of solar energy surplus? if so where?
There are latitudes of surplus between 34 N/S
What is radiation?
Heat moves with electromagnetic radiation. Heat from the sun is transferred by this mode.
What is conduction?
air molecules coming into contact with the heated surface are themselves heated and have the effect on adjacent molecules.
What is convection?
arising when the heated air layer tries to rise and the dense layer above tries to sink.