Anatomy Chapter 6: Skeletal

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Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

epiphyseal plate

Bones are classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function.

False

Osteomyelitis is ________.

due to pus-forming bacteria

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.

perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

osteoclast

What tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification?

cartilage

Paranasal sinuses are found in which of these facial bones?

maxillae

The axial skeleton includes the ________.

ribs

Which of the following is UNLIKELY to affect bone remodeling?

glucagon

The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is ________.

hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling

What is endochondral ossification?

the formation of bone from pre-existing hyaline cartilage models

In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?

elevated levels of sex hormones

What controls bone remodeling?

mechanical stress and hormones

During late pregnancy, women may exhibit temporary lordosis. This is advantageous because temporary lordosis _________.

makes it easier for a woman to maintain her balance

There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.

True

When should prevention of osteoporosis start?

The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children while bones are still growing. Children should increase their bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis in the future.

Bones do NOT have a role in ________.

glycogen production

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

compact bone

Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light.

False

How can a tooth be moved in a bony socket during orthodontic treatment?

By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reabsorb, while the bone on the reverse side will be reformed.

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?

Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

Which bone serves as an enclosure for the pituitary gland?

sphenoid bone

The vomer forms part of the nasal septum.

True

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.

by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

Hyaline cartilage ________.

is found on the ends of bones that form movable joints

Mrs. Mulligan goes to her dentist and, after having a couple of cavities filled, her dentist strongly suggests that she reduce her intake of sodas and increase her intake of calcium phosphates in the foods she eats. Why?

Sodas are strong acids that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.

Hypercalcemia can be caused by_________.

hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone

Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?

compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin

Which of the following is stored in bones?

phosphate

Osteoclasts ________.

break down bone

Which bone cells form bone?

osteoblasts

In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow.

False

All bones stop growing by the end of adolescence.

False

The main role of the appendicular skeleton is to protect and support vital organs.

False

The ________ is the only bone in the body that does not directly articulate with any other bone.

hyoid bone

Choose the TRUE statement.

Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).

The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.

False

The structural unit of spongy is called ________.

trabeculae

Alice and James adopted a 3-year-old child from a developing country. They noticed that her legs were bowed and there were some deformities in her cranial and pelvic bones. They brought her to a physician for a diagnosis. What was the diagnosis, and what was the treatment for the disorder?

The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.

Osteogenesis is the process of ________.

bone formation

Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?

osteocalcin

Which of the following is a bone projection?

trochanter

Which bone acts as a moveable base for the tongue?

hyoid bone

Which description of bone cells is INCORRECT?

Osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts.

The hormone that is primarily involved in the control of bone remodeling is the parathyroid hormone.

True

The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.

appositional growth

Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?

growth hormone

What type of bone is the patella?

sesamoid bone

Which of the following refers to a bone disorder found most often in the aged and resulting in the bones becoming porous and light?

osteoporosis

When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called ________.

interstitial growth

Wolff's law is concerned with ________.

the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.

calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

Which type of cartilage covers and protects the ends of bones at freely moveable joints?

hyaline cartilage

In adults, yellow marrow is located ________.

in the medullary cavity of long bones

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

Which of the following is the normal curve often seen in pregnant women as they attempt to preserve their center of gravity toward the end of the pregnancy?

lordosis

What is the joint formed by the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone?

temporomandibular joint

The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.

True

Osteocytes are connected to each other through which structure?

caniculi

What is absolutely required for bone growth or healing from a fracture?

osteoblasts

What makes up the axial skeleton?

the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is of greatest importance for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

growth hormone

Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.

False

The notable hardness of bone is attributed to ________.

the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites

The dens articulates with the axis.

False

Which of the following bones is a part of the appendicular skeleton?

humerus

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.

blood vessels and nerve fibers

For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

A cleft palate arises when the right and left _____________ bones fail to fuse medially during fetal development.

maxillae

The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones.

True

What indicates that a long bone has reached its adult length?

closure of the epiphyseal plate

Choose the FALSE statement.

Long bones include all limb bones except the patella.

The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?

sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules

The osteon is ________.

the structural unit of compact bone

Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone.

False

Which of the following bones are part of the axial skeleton?

bones that form the facial skeleton

Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite.

True

The term diploë refers to the ________.

internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

Choose the CORRECT pairing.

paget's disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

parathyroid hormone

Which of the following phrases best describes the function of the vertebral curves?

to provide resilience and flexibility

The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________.

sagittal

Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.

True

Why, or why not, is swimming recommended as an exercise to prevent osteoporosis?

Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is not considered a weight-bearing exercise.

Mastoiditis is most likely to result from an infection spreading from the throat.

True

Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes.

True

The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk.

True

Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.

True

Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.

is produced by secondary ossification centers

The pituitary gland is housed in the ________.

sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

Hematopoiesis is a term for which of the following physiological processes?

blood cell formation

Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses?

Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull.

Which of the following is not a movement that can occur between vertebrae?

supination

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

the osteon

Lordosis only occurs in pregnant women.

False

A Pott's fracture could result in damage to all of the following except ____________.

tibial condyle

What is the final stage in the healing of a bone fracture?

bone remodeling

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.

fat

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.

osteoblasts and osteoclasts

The hyoid bone is unique because it ________.

is the only bone of the body that does not articulate with any other bone

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.

interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

hyaline cartilage

Men and women have the same number of ribs.

True

The frontal bone articulates with the parietal bone by means of the sagittal suture.

False

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

osteon

The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are called ________.

fontanelles

Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region?

scoliosis

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?

thyroid

What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.

diaphysis

After having a severe cold accompanied by nasal congestion, Jamila complained that she had a headache just above her eyes and that the right side of her face ached. What specific bony structures probably became infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the cold?

The frontal sinus located in the frontal bone, and the right maxillary sinus located in the right maxilla

Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone?

ramus

Flat bones consist of compact bone sandwiched between spongy bone.

False

What is osteoid?

the organic part of the matrix of bone

Cranial bones develop ________.

within fibrous membranes

What causes osteoporosis?

Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.

Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

communication

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.

osteoblast

What is the major function of the axial skeleton?

provide central support for the body and protect internal organs

During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is ________.

growth hormone

The epiphyseal plate is ________.

where long bone lengthening occurs

In adults, hematopoietic tissue is NOT found in ________.

the medullary cavity of long bones

An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.

True

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