APUSH American Revolution

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2nd Continental Congress

met in Philadelphia as a response to the violence at Lexington and Concord. All of the thirteen colonies were represented. the delegates still wished to remain part of Britain if possible, but also made preparations for war if warfare became necessary

Ethan Allen

led a small American force to capture British strongholds at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, obtaining stores of gunpowder and weapons. these supplies proved useful in the seige of Boston

Benedict Arnold

won many key battles for the American cause during the Revolution. Shockingly turned traitor in 1780 and sold out West Point to the British

Olive Branch Petition

written by the Continental Congress after some initial military action between Britain and America. Proclaimed American loyalty to Britain and attempted reconciliation with the crown, but was rejected by King George III, who declared the colonies in rebellion.

Hesse

a German principality from which many German soldiers were hired by the British in the American Revolution. Many were not dedicated to their cause and ended up deserting the British to live in America

General Richard Montgomery

led the unsuccessful American attempt to capture Quebec, and was killed in the battle

Common Sense

Argument for the importance of liberty and republicanism. Rallied the Americans together against the British Crown

Richard Henry Lee

member of the Philadelphia Congress from Virginia. Passionately believed that the American colonies should be free states independent from Britain. His idea was formally adopted by the Congress in the Declaration of Independence.

natural rights

rights all humankind deserve, according to the Continental Congress. The colonies believed they deserved to revolt because the King went against these rights

Declaration of Independence

compiled by the Continental Congress to formally declare America as a nation independent from Britain, and to explain why this was fair and necessary. Penned by Thomas Jefferson.

Loyalists, Tories

American colonists loyal to England and the British Crown. Most common among the older generations and in areas where the Anglican Church was still the dominant religion.

Patriots, Whigs

American colonists who were pro-revolution and independence. They were extremely passionate and zealous and were always trying to win over those colonists who were on the fence.

William Franklin

Supporter of the loyalist cause who was the last royal governor of New Jersey.

Patrick Henry

Famous for saying "Give me liberty or give me death!"

General William Howe

British general in the American Revolution. Was not a great military leader, and was captured by surprise by George Washington on Christmas morning.

General John Burgoyne

British general in the American Revolution. His failure was important to the American capture of the Hudson River Valley. Surrendered his entire command to General Benedict Arnold.

Battle of Saratoga

a decisive battle in the American Revolution. The American victory helped rally the colonists to the American cause. Was a turning point in the war as it enabled aid from France.

General Nathanael Greene

American General who defeated British General Cornwallis and cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops

George Rogers Clark

fronteirsman who seized many British forts in Illinois by surprise, helping to clear out the Ohio River Valley.

John Paul Jones

early leader of the American Navy. Never made much of an impact on the British fleets, but did harass them.

Privateers

basically legal American pirates. Captured British ships, brought in gold, rallied American support, and harassed the British

General Cornwallis

British general during the American Revolution. Was defeated at the Battle of Yorktown and surrendered his entire force.

Yorktown

decisive battle at which General Cornwallis surrendered. Washington assaulted the British by land while the French Navy blocked them off by sea.

1783

year Treaty of Paris (ending the American Revolution) was signed

Treaty of Paris

ends the American Revolution. US is formally recognized as an independent nation, and receives land west of the Mississippi.

Second Continental Congress

body that chose George Washington as commander in chief of the Continental Army

Quebec

British colony that Americans invaded in hopes of adding it to the rebellious 13 colonies.

Anglican

church body most closely linked with Tory sentiment

Armed Neutrality

term for the alliance of European powers who did not declare war but assumed a hostile stance toward Britain

the south

region which saw some of the Revolution's most bitter fighting, from 1780 to 1782, between American General Nathanael Greene and British General Cornwallis

Mississippi River

western boundary of the United States established in the Treaty of Paris

militiamen

irregular American troops who played a crucial role in swaying the neutral civilian population toward the Patriot cause

Holland

European nation other than France and Spain that supported the American Revolution by declaring war on Britain

Bunker Hill

military engagement that led King George III officially to declare the colonists in revolt

Thomas Paine

British immigrant who wrote Common Sense

Thomas Jefferson

drafted Declaration of Independence

Franklin, Jay, John Adams

worked with the British to win a generous peace treaty

General William Howe

British general who chose to relax in New York and Philadelphia rather than march up the Hudson River to fight

Joseph Brant

Mohawk chief who led many Iroquois to fight with Britain against American revolutionaries

mercantilism

basic economic and political theory by which 17th and 18th century European powers governed their overseas colonies

Navigation Laws

set of laws passed by Parliament that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain. largely ignored by the American colonists

enumerated goods

products that could legally only be shipped to England and not foreign markets

admiralty courts

hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until they could be proven innocent

virtual representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including American colonists, even if they did not vote for its members.

nonimportation agreements

effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act; made homespun clothing fashionable

tea

the product taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the most colonial resistance

committees of correspondence

underground networks of communication and propaganda established by Samuel Adams that sustained colonial resistance

catholicism

religion which was granted toleration in the Quebec Act

Hessians

term for German mercenaries hired by the British to fight the Americans

"continental"

paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the revolution. depreciated to near worthlessness

The Assocation

organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a unified boycott of all British goods

John Hancock

wealthy president of the Continental Congress and "King of the Smugglers"

George Grenville

British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act

Stamp Act

tax passed by Parliament which was repealed the next year after colonial resistance made it impossible to enforce

"Champagne Charley" Townshend

minister whose attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded, but eventually brewed trouble for Britain

Crispus Attucks

alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre

Samuel Adams

defender of the common people's rights and organizer of underground propaganda and communication committees

Intolerable Acts

harsh measures of retaliation for the Boston Tea Party on Massachusetts, including the Boston Port Act

Boston Port Act

reaction to the Boston Tea Party which closed the port of Boston

Thomas Hutchinson

British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party

Declaratory Act

Act passed by the British when the Stamp Act was repealed to reaffirm Britain's absolute sovereignty over the American colonies.

First Continental Congress

meeting of delegates from nine colonies in Philadelphia to address problems in the colonies. Produced appeals to the British government and The Association. Meeting of resistance, not yet rebellion.

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