2nd Continental Congress
met in Philadelphia as a response to the violence at Lexington and Concord. All of the thirteen colonies were represented. the delegates still wished to remain part of Britain if possible, but also made preparations for war if warfare became necessary
led a small American force to capture British strongholds at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, obtaining stores of gunpowder and weapons. these supplies proved useful in the seige of Boston
won many key battles for the American cause during the Revolution. Shockingly turned traitor in 1780 and sold out West Point to the British
Olive Branch Petition
written by the Continental Congress after some initial military action between Britain and America. Proclaimed American loyalty to Britain and attempted reconciliation with the crown, but was rejected by King George III, who declared the colonies in rebellion.
a German principality from which many German soldiers were hired by the British in the American Revolution. Many were not dedicated to their cause and ended up deserting the British to live in America
General Richard Montgomery
led the unsuccessful American attempt to capture Quebec, and was killed in the battle
Argument for the importance of liberty and republicanism. Rallied the Americans together against the British Crown
Richard Henry Lee
member of the Philadelphia Congress from Virginia. Passionately believed that the American colonies should be free states independent from Britain. His idea was formally adopted by the Congress in the Declaration of Independence.
rights all humankind deserve, according to the Continental Congress. The colonies believed they deserved to revolt because the King went against these rights
Declaration of Independence
compiled by the Continental Congress to formally declare America as a nation independent from Britain, and to explain why this was fair and necessary. Penned by Thomas Jefferson.
American colonists loyal to England and the British Crown. Most common among the older generations and in areas where the Anglican Church was still the dominant religion.
American colonists who were pro-revolution and independence. They were extremely passionate and zealous and were always trying to win over those colonists who were on the fence.
Supporter of the loyalist cause who was the last royal governor of New Jersey.
Famous for saying "Give me liberty or give me death!"
General William Howe
British general in the American Revolution. Was not a great military leader, and was captured by surprise by George Washington on Christmas morning.
General John Burgoyne
British general in the American Revolution. His failure was important to the American capture of the Hudson River Valley. Surrendered his entire command to General Benedict Arnold.
Battle of Saratoga
a decisive battle in the American Revolution. The American victory helped rally the colonists to the American cause. Was a turning point in the war as it enabled aid from France.
General Nathanael Greene
American General who defeated British General Cornwallis and cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops
George Rogers Clark
fronteirsman who seized many British forts in Illinois by surprise, helping to clear out the Ohio River Valley.
John Paul Jones
early leader of the American Navy. Never made much of an impact on the British fleets, but did harass them.
basically legal American pirates. Captured British ships, brought in gold, rallied American support, and harassed the British
British general during the American Revolution. Was defeated at the Battle of Yorktown and surrendered his entire force.
decisive battle at which General Cornwallis surrendered. Washington assaulted the British by land while the French Navy blocked them off by sea.
year Treaty of Paris (ending the American Revolution) was signed
Treaty of Paris
ends the American Revolution. US is formally recognized as an independent nation, and receives land west of the Mississippi.
Second Continental Congress
body that chose George Washington as commander in chief of the Continental Army
British colony that Americans invaded in hopes of adding it to the rebellious 13 colonies.
church body most closely linked with Tory sentiment
term for the alliance of European powers who did not declare war but assumed a hostile stance toward Britain
region which saw some of the Revolution's most bitter fighting, from 1780 to 1782, between American General Nathanael Greene and British General Cornwallis
western boundary of the United States established in the Treaty of Paris
irregular American troops who played a crucial role in swaying the neutral civilian population toward the Patriot cause
European nation other than France and Spain that supported the American Revolution by declaring war on Britain
military engagement that led King George III officially to declare the colonists in revolt
British immigrant who wrote Common Sense
drafted Declaration of Independence
Franklin, Jay, John Adams
worked with the British to win a generous peace treaty
General William Howe
British general who chose to relax in New York and Philadelphia rather than march up the Hudson River to fight
Mohawk chief who led many Iroquois to fight with Britain against American revolutionaries
basic economic and political theory by which 17th and 18th century European powers governed their overseas colonies
set of laws passed by Parliament that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain. largely ignored by the American colonists
products that could legally only be shipped to England and not foreign markets
hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until they could be proven innocent
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including American colonists, even if they did not vote for its members.
effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act; made homespun clothing fashionable
the product taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the most colonial resistance
committees of correspondence
underground networks of communication and propaganda established by Samuel Adams that sustained colonial resistance
religion which was granted toleration in the Quebec Act
term for German mercenaries hired by the British to fight the Americans
paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the revolution. depreciated to near worthlessness
organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a unified boycott of all British goods
wealthy president of the Continental Congress and "King of the Smugglers"
British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act
tax passed by Parliament which was repealed the next year after colonial resistance made it impossible to enforce
"Champagne Charley" Townshend
minister whose attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded, but eventually brewed trouble for Britain
alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre
defender of the common people's rights and organizer of underground propaganda and communication committees
harsh measures of retaliation for the Boston Tea Party on Massachusetts, including the Boston Port Act
Boston Port Act
reaction to the Boston Tea Party which closed the port of Boston
British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party
Act passed by the British when the Stamp Act was repealed to reaffirm Britain's absolute sovereignty over the American colonies.
First Continental Congress
meeting of delegates from nine colonies in Philadelphia to address problems in the colonies. Produced appeals to the British government and The Association. Meeting of resistance, not yet rebellion.