Anatomy Chapter 3 Terms

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Cell

(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms

Cell Theory

1. All living things are made of cells

chromosome

A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.

deoxyribonucleic acid

nucleic acid found in all living cells: carries the organism's hereditary information.

desmosome

Anchoring junctions that prevents cells subjected to mechanical stress from being pulled apart; two adjacent cells are attached. formed from protein plaques in the the cell membranes linked by protein filaments

gap junction

Communicating Junctions; channels that allow small molecules to flow through protein-lined pores between cells. common in the heart and embryonic cells.

membrane junction

Cells are tightly bound, prevent fluids and most molecules from moving between cells. Useful in places such as the stomach and kidneys. types are desmosomes, tight junctions, and gap junctions

Organelle

A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell

tight junction

A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells, Impermeable, bind cells together into leak-proof sheets

active transport

Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference or gradient

anaphase

3rd phase; the chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and move in opposite poles of the spindle.

cell division

Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells

concentration gradient

a gradient in concentration of a solute that molecules move down and the greater the difference in concentration between the two areas, the faster diffusion occurs. It is An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area., A difference in concentration between two areas.

cytokinesis

Division of the cytoplasm during cell division after the cell nucleus has divided.

diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

endocytosis

Active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell to form a vacuole.

filtration

A process that separates materials through a membrane based on the size of their particles.

hypertonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.,causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis

hypotonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution, causes a cell to swell because of osmosis.

interphase

A the resting phase between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins

isotonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution. examples interstitial fluid and intravenous solutions

metaphase

Second Stage of Cell division: Centromeres of duplicated chromosomes are aligned at plate. chromosomes become attached to spindle fibers

mitosis

Cell's division (PMAT) of the nucleus. Final product is 2 daughter cells that are exactly like the parent cell., asexual reproduction and contains same number of chromosomes.

osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

passive transport

Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient.example is ATP. and diffusion is driven by kinetic energy

protein synthesis

Forming proteins based on information in DNA and carried out by RNA

telophase

After the chromosome seperates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis., A cleavage furrow forms during this phase, two nuclei are formed

anticodon

A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.

codon

A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid. (if DNA triplets are AAT-CGT-TCG then related _____ on mRNA would be UUA-GCA-AGC

enzyme

A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific chemical reaction

gene

biological unit of hereditary information located in chromatin consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses). that transmits hereditary information.

ribonucleic acid(RNA)

single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose; acts in protein synthesis

transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA, DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of RNA

translation

the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA and used to assemble proteins.

triplet

a group of three bases on DNA that codes for one amino acid.

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