|Ocean||Vast body of saline water that occupies the depressions of Earth's surface.|
|Water on Earth|| 97% in the ocean|
3% in land, ice, groundwater, and all freshwater lakes and rivers
|Oceanography (Marine Science)||The process of discovering unifying principles in data obtained from the ocean, its associated life-forms, and its bordering lands.|
|Marine Science Specializations|| Marine Geologist|
|Science|| A systematic process of asking questions about the observable world by gathering and then studying the data.|
*interprets raw data
|Scientific Method||An orderly process by which theories are verified or rejected.|
|Big Bang|| *Occurred ~ 13.7 billion years ago|
All of the mass and energy of the universe is thought to have been concentrated at a geometric point at the begining of space and time (start of universe expansion).
|Big Bang (Result)|| As the universe expanded, it cooled to allow the formation of atoms from the energy and particles: mostly hydrogen.|
This cooled matter began to congeal into the first galaxies and stars.
|Galaxy|| A huge, rotating aggregation of stars, dust, gas, and other debris held together by gravity.|
Example: Milky Way
|Stars||Massive spheres of incandescent gases.|
|Solar System||A sun and its family of planets.|
|Nebulae|| Large, diffuse clouds of dust and gas within galaxies.|
*where stars form
|Condensation Theory (Star)||1.) A spinning nebula begins to shrink and heat up under the influence of its own weak gravity.|
2.) The sphere flattens and condenses at the center into a knot of gases = protostar.
3.) Gravitational energy causes it to contract = raises internal temperatures.
4.) When temperature reach ~ 10 million degree C, nuclear fusion begins = releases more energy.
5.) Transitions from protostar to star = stops shrinking + burns H at a steady rate.
6.) Over its lifetime, converts hydrogen to heavier atoms like C or O.
|Nuclear Fusion|| Hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium.|
*releases large amounts of energy
|A Star's Life|| The stable burning of hydrogen through nuclear fusion depends on the star's initial mass.|
Medium-mass (Sun): when it begins to consume C and O atoms, energy output rises and increases in size.
Large-mass: when it is depleted of hydrogen, it collapses on itself = supernova.
|Supernova|| Cataclysmic expansion that happens after a star collapses in on itself.|
Nuclear forces holding apart individual atomic nuclei are overcomed = atoms heavier than iron are formed.