Biology Chapter 3&4 Study Guide

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passive transport

the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell

concentration gradient

a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance

equilibrium

in chemistry, the state in which a chemical reaction and the reverse chemical reaction occur at the same rate such that the concentrations of reactancts and products do not change

diffusion

the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density

osmosis

the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent

hypertonic solution

a solution that causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis; the fluid outside the cell has a higher concentration of dissolved particles that the cytoplasm has, likewise, the outside fluid also has a lower concentration of free water molecules than the cytoplasm

hypotonic solution

a solution that causes a cell to swell because of osmosis; the fluid outside the cell has a lower concentration of dissolved particles than the cytomplasm has, likewise, the outside fluid also has a higher concentration of free water molecules than the cytoplasm

isotonic solution

a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell

ion channel

a pore in a cell membrane through which ions can pass

carrier protein

a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane

facilitated diffusion

the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins

active transport

the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy

sodium-potassium pump

a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell

endocytosis

the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell

exocytosis

the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesivle that transports the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out

receptor protein

a protein that binds specific signal molecules, which causes the cell to respond

second messenger

a molecule that is generated when a specific substance attaches to a receptor on the outside of a cell membrane, which produces a change in cellular function

cell membrane

cells share common structural features including an outer boundary called this

cytoplasm

the cell membrane encloses the cell and separates the cell interior GELL LIKE HOLDS ORGANELLES IN PLACE

cytoskeleton

this is within the cytoplasm are many structures often suspended in a system of microscopic fibers HOLLOW TUBES GIVE SUPPORT AND PROTECTION AND SHAPE

ribosomes

are the cellular structures on which proteins are made

prokaryote

is a single celled organism that lacks a nucleus and other internal compartments

cell wall

surrounding the cell membrane that provides structure and support

flagella

many prokaryotes have this, its a long thread like structure that protrude from the cell's surface and enable movement.

eukaryote

is an organism whose cells have a nucleus

nucleus

is an internal compartment that houses the cell's dna

organelle

is a structure that carries out specific activities in the cell

cilia

short hairlike structures

phospholid

is a lipid made of phosphate group and two fatty acids

lipid bilayer

in a cell membrane the phospoholipds are arranged in a double layer

endoplasmic reticulum

and extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the cell

vesicle

is a small membrane bound sac that transports substances in cells

golgi apparatus

is a set of flattened membrane bound sacs that serve as the packaging and distribution center of the cell

lysosomes

small spherical organelles that contain the cell's digestive enzymes, BREAKDOWN SUBSTANCES LARGER AND LOOK LIKE SCATTERED CIRCLES

mitochondria

an organelle that harvest energy from organic compound to make atp

micrograph

image produced by microscope

two liquid fatty acids

What makes up a phospholipid?

they are single celled organelles without a nucleus. have a cell wall and flagella. ex plant cell fungus cell. have organelles

What are the characteristics of a prokaryotic cell and give examples.

diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and they dont use energy

What are the 3 types of passive transport and how are they different from active transport?

Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow.

Who helped the Develop the cell theory?

All living things are made of one or more cells, Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. All cells arise from existing cells

What are the 3 parts of the cell theory.

exorcytosis

the movement of substances out of the cell that uses active transport

it helps the body function and is a protective outer layer that controls what goes in and out of the cell

describe what the cell membrane does, and its structure.

cell wall, nucleolus, nuclear envelope

Where is the DNA located? What surrounds it as a protective layer?

they both use proteins to move

What do active transport and facilitated diffusion have in common?

hypertonic solution

loses water, shrinks

hypotonic solution

wells and gains too much water

chloroplast

organelles that use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water

central vacuole

stores water and has ions nutrients and wastes

ribosomes

little dots inside endoplasmic reticulum make protein

nucleus

protect and direct dna

mitochondria

uses energy

passive transport

the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell

concentration gradient

a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance

equilibrium

in chemistry, the state in which a chemical reaction and the reverse chemical reaction occur at the same rate such that the concentrations of reactancts and products do not change

diffusion

the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density

osmosis

the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent

hypertonic solution

a solution that causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis; the fluid outside the cell has a higher concentration of dissolved particles that the cytoplasm has, likewise, the outside fluid also has a lower concentration of free water molecules than the cytoplasm

hypotonic solution

a solution that causes a cell to swell because of osmosis; the fluid outside the cell has a lower concentration of dissolved particles than the cytomplasm has, likewise, the outside fluid also has a higher concentration of free water molecules than the cytoplasm

isotonic solution

a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell

ion channel

a pore in a cell membrane through which ions can pass

carrier protein

a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane

facilitated diffusion

the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins

active transport

the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy

sodium-potassium pump

a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell

endocytosis

the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell

exocytosis

the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesivle that transports the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out

receptor protein

a protein that binds specific signal molecules, which causes the cell to respond

second messenger

a molecule that is generated when a specific substance attaches to a receptor on the outside of a cell membrane, which produces a change in cellular function

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