Earth system science
The study of earth materials and processes subdivided into a group of four interconnected spheres of activity: atmosphere geosphere hydrosphere and biosphere.
A simplified representation of an object, process, or phenomenon, used as the basis for further study or investigation.
A naturally occurring group of objects or phenomena that share matter and energy; for example, the four spheres of the Earth System.
A system in which energy can enter or leave, but matter cannot.
A system in which there is a free exchange of both energy and mater between the system and its surroundings.
The gaseous envelope of air surrounding Earth, made up of a mixture of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% of water vapor and other gases.
The rocks, mountains, lithospheric plates, and other physical features of Earth, except for water; one of the four spheres of the Earth system.
All water in the Earth system - gaseous (water vapor), solid (snow and ice), and liquid (rain and water); one of the four spheres of the Earth system.
All living things in the Earth system and their environments; one of the four spheres of the Earth system.
The physical or chemical processing of Earth materials that repeats over time; for example the water cycle, carbon cycle, and rock cycle.
The continuous circulation of water through the hydrosphere as solid, liquid, or gas.
The rapid cycling of water vapor into the atmosphere by evaporation from Earth's surface or transpiration from plant leaves.
The biogeochemical circulation of carbon through the Earth system.
The movement of energy into and out of the Earth system.
Energy emitted by the sun.
Heat energy that originated from within Earth and drives the movement of Earth's techtonic plates.
Energy created by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon on Earth's oceans.
The branch of physics that deals with how heat energy is converted into other forms of energy.