Chemical texture services...
.... permanently alter the natural wave pattern of the hair
Texture services can be used to add...
Add CURL to straight hair, STRAIGHTEN overly curly hair, or SOFTEN coarse hair.
Chemical texture services include...
a. Permanent waving
c. curl re-forming
Tough exterior layer of the hair; surrounds the inner layers and protects the hair from damage.
The cuticle is not
Directly involved in the texture or movement of the hair.
The middle layer of the hair; responsible for the strength and elasticity of the hair.
Often called the pith or core of the hair and does not play a role in structuring or restructuring the hair.
Potential of hydrogen
pH scale measures...
The acidity and alkalinity of a substance
Natural pH of hair
4.5 - 5.5
Texturizers change the hair's natural curl pattern by...
Raising the pH of the hair to an alkaline state in order to soften and swell the hair shaft. This action lifts the cuticle and allows the solution to reach the cortex and restructure the hair.
Hair that requires a highly alkaline chemical solution is...
Coarse, resistant hair
compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
End bonds; link amino acids together in long chains
Formed by peptide bonds that are linked together
Long, coiled polypeptide chains
Crosslinked polypeptide chains
Chemical side bonds that are formed when two sulfur type chains are joined together
Weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges
Before proceeding with any service, you must first determine...
a. Exactly what the client expects
b. What is possible
are not compatible with permanent waving.
Metallic salts leave a coating on the hair that may cause what three things?
1. Uneven curls
2. Severe discoloration
3. Hair breakage
Metallic Salt Test
Mix 1 oz of 20v peroxide with 20 drops of 20% ammonia. Immerse 20+ strands of hair n the solution for 30 minutes. Slight lightening = no metallic salts. Rapid lightening and foul smell = metallic salts
Client records should include a complete evaluation of...
Purpose of client release forms:
Indicate that that the client knew before the chemical service that there's a possibility of damage to the hair or unexpected adverse reaction.
Client release forms DO NOT
Release the school or salon from all responsibility for any damages that may occur.
During a scalp analysis, look for...
Cuts, scratches, open sores, redness or flaking
If there are minor skin abrasions or scalp disease...
DO NOT PROCEED with the chemical texture services
Five most important factors to consider in a hair analysis:
5. Growth direction
The diameter of a hair strand
The thickness or number of hairs per square inch
The hair's ability to absorb moisture
How far the hair stretches before breaking and how well it returns to its original shape
How the hair naturally lays
usually more resistant to processing
Most common hair texture; does not pose any problems or concerns
More fragile; easier to process
Measures the number of hairs per square inch on the head to determine whether a client has fine, medium or thick hair.
Course hair naturally looks
Thicker and fuller
The degree of porosity is directly related to the condition of the
Has a tight, compact cuticle that resist penetration
Neither resistant nor overly porous
Has a raised cuticle layer that easily absorbs
An indication of the strength of the side bonds that hold the individual fibers of the hair in place
Elasticity of the hair determines its ability to
Elasticity is usually classified as
Normal to low
Wet hair with normal elasticity can stretch up to what percentage of its original length, then return to the same length without breaking?
The individual growth direction of the hair causes _____, ______, and ______ that influence the finished hairstyle and must be considered when selecting the base direction and wrapping pattern for each permanent wave
Hair streams, whorls and cowlicks
Two steps of the permanent waving process
1. Physical change caused by wrapping
2. Chemical change caused by perm solution and neutralizer
In permanent waving, the size of the rod determines
The size of the curl
The most common type of perm rod; have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger circumference on the ends
Concave rods produce what type of curl?
Tighter curl in the center and a looser curl on either side of the strand.
Equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area
Straight rods produce what type of curl?
Uniform curl along the entire width of the strand
Usually about 12" long with a uniform diameter along the entire length and a stiff wire that allows them to bend into almost any shape
Soft bender rods
Usually about 12" long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod
Loop or circle rod
Absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on the perm rods
Extend end papers beyond the ends of the hair
How do you avoid "fishhooks"
Double flat wrap
Use two end papers. Place one under and one over the strand of hair being wrapped. Both papers extend past the hair ends.
Single flat wrap
1 end paper placed over top of hair being wrapped
1 end paper, folded in half over hair
Step one of a perm
Section hair into panels
Determine the size, shape and direction of panels by
Wrapping pattern and the type and size of the rod
Each panel is divided into subsections called
The position of the rod in relation to its base section, and it is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped
On base placement
Hair is wrapped 45 degree beyond perpendicular to its base section
Half off base placement
Hair is wrapped at a 90 degree angle or straight out from the center of the section; minimizes stress and tension on the hair
Off base placement
Hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle below the center of the base section; creates the least amount of volume and results in a curl pattern that begins farthest away from the scalp.
Rods placed horizontally, vertically or diagonally
To cause the lease amount of stress to the hair
Wrap in the natural direction of hair growth
Two methods of wrapping the hair around the perm rod
Croquignole and spiral
Hair strand is wound around the rod, going from the ends to the scalp
Produces a uniform curl from scalp to ends
Double tool or piggyback wrap
Two rods used, one on top of the other. One starts midway down the hair shaft and the other starts at the end, both on the same strand of hair. This is good to use on long hair.
Benefit for wrapping long hair in a piggyback wrap
Better solution penetration and tighter curl near scalp
Alkaline permanent waving solution
Softens and swells the hair, raising the cuticle, permitting solution to penetrate cortex
Once the solution is in the cortex
Solution breaks down the disulfide bonds through a reduction reaction
Either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen
Reduction reaction in permanent waving
Hydrogen is added
Reducing agent used in permanent waving solutions
Most common reducing agent
Determines the strength of the permanent waving solution
Concentration of thio
Ammonia is added to the thiglycolic acid because
Acids do not swell the hair or penetrate the cortex
Ammonia + Thioglycolic acid =
Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG), the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents
pH of most alkaline waves
9.0 - 9.6
An acid with a low pH and is the primary reducing agent in all modern acid waves
Alkaline waves were developed in _____ and relied on the same ATG that is still used today
True acid waves were introduced
True acid waves have a pH between
4.5 and 7.0
True acid waves
Require heat to speed up processing
Three separate components of all acid waves
Most acid waves today have a pH between
7.8 and 8.2
Process more quickly and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
Create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing
Components of exothermic waves
Solution, activator, and neutralizer
Mixing an oxidizer with the permanent waving solution will
Cause a rapid release of heat and an increase in the solutions temperature
Activated by an outside heat source like a conventional hood type dryer
Use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia; low odor with use
Use an ingredient other than ATG as the primary reducing agent
Low pH waves
Use of sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites presenting an alternative to ATG
Strength of any permanent wave is based on the concentration of its
The amount of processing during a permanent wave is determined by the
Strength of the permanent waving solution
In permanent waving, most of the processing takes place as soon as the solution
Penetrates the hair - within the first 5 to 10 minutes
Additional processing time allows
Polypeptide chains to shift into their new configuration
Over processing usually occurs when?
Within the first 5-10 minutes of the service
Resistant hair may not...
Become fully saturated with just one application of waving solution
Under processed hair
Hair is straight at the scalp and curly at the ends
Over processed hair
Hair is curly at the scalp and straight at the ends
The process of stopping the action of a permanent waving solution; rebuilds hair into its new form
Two important functions of neutralization
Deactivation of any solution left in the hair
Rebuild disulfide bonds
Most common neutralizer
Rinse perm solution
For at least 5 minutes
Hair is insufficiently blotted
Neutralizer effect is reduced
Especially at an alkaline pH
Oxidative reactions can lighten hair color
When rinsing the hair
Use a gentle stream of warm water
Towel blot hair after rinsing
Adjust any rods that have become _____ prior to applying the neutralizer
Breaks disulfide bonds by adding hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atoms.
Rebuilds disulfide bonds by removing the extra hydrogen atoms.