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biological psychology

branch of psych concerned with the links between biology and behavior

neuroscience

the relationship between that brain and behavior

neuron

basic building block of the nervous system

cell body

neurons life support center, nourishes cells, packs proteins

axon

fiber extending from cell body that carries outgoing messages

tract

group of axons bundled together that carry information to a specific area

myelin sheath

layer of fatty substance on axon that speeds up the transmission

MS

a disease caused by a degeneration of myelin for unknown causes

sensory neurons

these are at the dorsal side of spinal cells

motor neurons

these are at the ventral (front) side of spinal cells

interneurons

the neurons between the sensory and motor neurons that carry messages from one neuron to another

sensory

______ neurons collect from sense organs and carry the messages to the spinal cord or brain

afferent

sensory neurons are aka.......

motor

______ neurons carry messages from spinal cord or brain to the muscles/ glands

neural impulse

method of communication between neurons

electrical

a neural impulse is an _______ charge that travels down the axon causing the neuron to fire

action potential

the electrically charged impulse that allows the neuron to communicate with other neurons

intra

A- and K+ are in the _______-cellular fluid

extra

Cl- and Na+ are in the _______-cellular fluid

dendrites

neurotransmitters bind to the __________

re-polarization

K+ contributes to ___________

depolarization

Na+ contributes to ___________

negative

at rest, neurons have a small _______ electrical charge

polarization

when the cell is at a state of rest, it's called ________

graded potential

when some sodium enters, but not enough to cause the neuron to fire

depolarizes

entrance of the positive ions into the cell body _______ the cell

open

channels = _______ when cell is at rest

closed

gate = _______ when cell is at rest

pumps

these pump Na and k in out and of cell

3, out

when the pumps are at work, ___ Na ions are pumped _____

2, in

when the pumps are at work, ___ K ions are pumped _____

sodium

these channels open first

relative refractory

could go off if it gets enough stimulus, but it takes more than usual

absolute refractory

impossible for cell to fire again, hyperpolarization. more negative than in the beginning

nodes

______ are the site of action potential down the axon- gates are there

terminal button

tip of axon where neural impulse moves to the next synapse

synapse

gap between axon tip of one neuron and dendrite of the next

vesicle

sacs filled with NT that release the NT into the synapse

synaptic gap

site of all learning

excitatory synapse

synapse at which a NT causes the receiving cell to fire

inhibitory synapse

synapse at which a NT causes the receiving cell to stop firing

selective seratonin repuptake inhibitor

SSRI stands for....

drugs

synthesized molecules that are similar enough to a specific NT, so they into receptor site

parkinsons

this disease occurs because of loss of dopamine

skitsophrenia

disease caused by too much dopamine

fires

agonist- excitatory synapse

stop firing

agonist- inhibitory synapse

stop firing

antagonist- excitatory synapse

fires

antagonist- inhibitory synapse

acetylcholine

NT that triggers muscle contraction, memory

dopamine

NT involved with voluntary mvmt, learning, memory, and emotions

serotonin

NT involved with mood, depression, sleep, appetite

endorphins

NT that acts as natural oplate released in response to pain and vigorous exercise

CNS

the brain and the spinal cord are the major components of the _________

central core

earliest part of the brain to develop, performs most basic functions

hindbrain

point where the spinal cord enters the skull, contains the medulla, pons, and cerebellum

cerebellum

part of brain involved with balance and coordinating the body's actions, prioritizes incoming stimuli

thalamus

part of the brain that gets all incoming sensory relay signals

pons

part of the brain responsible for 24 sleep-wake cycle

reticular formation

part in central core that is responsible for arousal

limbic system

communicates emotions to places where interpretation and cognitive processes occur

hippocampus

part of the brain responsible for formation of new memories

amygdala

governs emotions related to self preservation such as rage and fear

cerebral cortex

this area of the brain is more highly developed in humans than in any other animal

central fissure

runs sideways from ear to ear and separates the primary somatosensory cortex from the primary motor cortex

left

the side of the cerebral cortex responsible for language

right

the side of the cerebral cortex responsible for spatial navigation

prosopagnosia

inability to recognize faces

occipital

the _____ lobe receives and processes visual info

temporal

the _______ lobe regulates hearing, smell, balance, equilibrium, motion, motivation, and some language

prosopagnosia

this is a result of damage to the temporal lobe

neglect

this is a result of damage to the parietal lobe

phineas gage

this is a result of damage to the frontal lobe

parietal

the ______ lobe receives sensory info from body and regulates spatial and mathematical abilities

frontal

the __________ lobe performs executive functions- receives and coordinates messages from the other three lobes and plays a key role in personality, motivation, persistence, affect, and character

hypothalamus

the _______ sends the message that engages the sympathetic nervous system

cortisol

the hormone released during arousal

saliva

where is cortisol measurable

peripheral

the ________ nervous system contains the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

autonomic

the ________ nervous system controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands

somatic

the ________ nervous system controls voluntary actions such as writing, reaching, etc

under, sympathetic

psychopaths experience ______ arousal of the _____ system

parathyroid

4 tiny glads in brain- excitability

endocrine

this is the chemical communication system which consists of glands that secrete hormones in the blood stream

thyroid

this gland produces thyroxine and controls the metabolism

pineal gland

located at the top of the brain, this glad makes melatonin and regulates sleep-wake cycle

pancreas

gland that makes insuline and glucose

pituitary gland

under brain, gets axons to body

adrenal gland

this gland releases epinepherine and norepinepherine

hormones

these are produced by endocrine glands and occur when one tissue can influence another

sympathetic

this is the system responsible for what happens during arousal, fight or flight

parasympathetic

when threat is gone and body is returning to a normal state

soma

cell body, contains the nucleus

axon terminals

short fibers at the end of the axon

antagonist

chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's response to the action of other chemicals to NTs

glutamine

NT involved in learning and memory

reuptake

process that sends most NTs back into synaptic vesicles

neuroplasticity

ability to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in the brain in response to experience and even trauma

EEG

records the electrical activity activity of the neurons just below the skull

CT scan

series of x rays, show stroke damage, tumors, injuries, etc

PET scan

detects activity of brain cells by looking at radioactive glucose use

limbic system

contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala

hypothalamus

regulates body temp, thirst, hunger, sleeping and waking, sexual activity, and emotions

corpus callosum

thick, tough band of neural fibers that allows the left and right hemispheres to communicate

somatosensory cortex

processes info from skin and internal body receptors for touch, temp, and body position

motor cortex

controls mvmt of body's voluntary muscles by sending commands out to the somatic division of the peripheral nervous system

association areas

making connections between the sensory info coming into brain and stored memories, images, and knowledge

aphasia

refers to an inability to use or understand either written or spoken language

mirror neurons

fires when an animal observes the same action (that they're performing) being performed by another animal

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