Final exam study guide for Beavers A&P II fall 2013

135 terms by brooke_gustafson 

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Which of these is NOT one of the main divisions of the adult brain?
cerebrum
diencephalon
proencephalon
midbrain
pons

proencephalon

Which lies between the cerebrum and the brainstem?

diencephalon

Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the ...?

thalamus

Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the ...?

medulla oblongata

The third and fourth ventricles are linked by a slender canal designated as the ....

aqueduct of the midbrain

The ventricle associated with the pons and upper medulla is the ....

fourth

The dural fold that projects into the longitudinal fissure between cerebral hemispheres is called the ....

falx cerebri

What contains a spiderweb-like network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows?

subarachnoid space

The layer of the meninges that closely follows every gyrus and sulcus is the ...

pia mater

Which of the following is NOT a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
-provides cushioning for delicate neural tissues.
-provides buoyant support for the brain.
-acts as a transport medium for nutrients.
-provides ATP for impulse transmission
-acts as a transport medium for waste products

-provides ATP for impulse transmission.

Which of the following help to protect the brain?
-blood-brain barrier
-the bones of the skull
-the cranial meninges
-the CSF
-or all of the above

All of the above

The control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the ...

medulla oblongata

Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the ....

cerebellum

Stimulation of the reticular formation results in ....

increased consciousness

The _________ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems.

hypothalamus

Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlaying skull bones are ...

lobes

The cerebral area posterior to the central sulcus is the ...

parietal lobe

The region of the cerebral cortex superior to the lateral sulcus is the ...

parietal lobe and the frontal lobe

The region of the cerebral cortex that is medial and deep to the termporal lobe is the ...

insula

The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the _________ cortex.

primary sensory

The highest levels of information processing occur in the ...

cerebrum

Damage to the somatic motor association area of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to ....

play the piano

After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the _________ lobe.

left frontal

After suffering a BLOW to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the ...

occipital lobe.

Te two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the ...

longitudinal fissure

A (n) ________ is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a period of time.

electroencephalogram

You suspect your friend has damage to cranial nerve I when he is unable to ....

smell his food.

Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called....

proprioceptors

Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called....

baroreceptors

A receptor that responds to chemicals dissolved in solution is a ______.

chemoreceptor

If a friend is talking about someone she knows who lost his special senses, you would correct her when you hear her mention _____, because it is not a special sense.

cold

Bladder fullness is to _________ as blood pH is to __________.

baroreceptors; chemoreceptors

The cerebellum

-functions to maintain proper posture and equilibrium.
-receives input from the motor cortex and basal nuclei.
-compares intended movement to actual movement.
-if damaged leads to uncoordinated and jerky movements.
-has all of these characteristics

Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of .....

referred pain

The ___________ division of the autonomic nervous system is known as the "rest and digest" division.

parasympathetic

Ganglionic neurons innervate such things as .....

-smooth muscle
-cardiac muscle
-adipose tissue
-glands
-ALL OF THESE

Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers that innervate the heart pass through the ....

cardia plexus

A person is confronted by a dangerous dog. His heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. These signs are the result of .....

-sympathetic activation
-increased levels of epinephrine in the blood
-increased activity of autonomic centers in the hypothalamus.
-ALL OF THE ABOVE

Olfactory glands

coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus

The sensory neurons within the olfactory organ are stimulated by _________ in the air.

chemicals

Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribiform plate. They synapse on neurons in the ....

olfactory bulb.

Gustatory receptors are located ....

on the surface of the tongue.

Which of the following is NOT one of the six primary taste sensations?

peppery

The external ear ends at the ....

tympanic membrane

The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the ...

auditory tube

The __________ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the _________ ear, which contains auditory ossicles.

outer; middle

The external acoustic meatus ends at :

ALL: the tympanic membrane, the eardrum and the tympanum

Which of these anatomical sequences is correct?

tympanum - malleus - incus - stapes - oval window - round window.

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term ossicles?

transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear

The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the ...

auditory ossicles

Which of the following is a function of tears?

-lubricate the eye,
-wash away debris
-provide oxygen
-nourish the cornea and conjunctiva
ALL OF THE ABOVE

The opening in the iris through which light passes is the:

pupil

The vitreous body:

Helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.

The gelatinous material found in the posterior cavity is the:

vitreous humor

An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the:

fovea

Identify some structures::

cornea, fovea and suspensory ligaments, and retina

In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the:

cornea

Endocrine structures:

release their secretions directly into body fluids.

__________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.

Hormones

The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) __________ organ.

endocrine

The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is:

TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone

The pituitary hormone that controls the release of steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex.

ACTH -

The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is:

ADH

The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones?

9

After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?

ADH

The adrenal medulla produces the hormones:

epinephrine and norepinephrine

Identify the hormone on the picture of the hypothalamus.....

-Thyroid-stimulating hormone
-corticotropin (ACTH)
-thyroxin (thyroid hormones)

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is:

insulin

Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in:

diabetes mellitus

Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?

low blood glucose

Which of the following is a function of the blood?

-transport of nutrients and wastes
-transport of body heat
-transport of gases
-defense against toxins and pathogens
ALL OF THE ABOVE

Which of the following statements about blood is FALSE?

normal pH is 6.8 to 7.0

The percent fraction of formed elements relative to whole blood is the:

hematocrit

Platelets are:

cytoplasmic fragments of large cells.

Plasma proteins essential in body defense are the:

immunoglobulins

Which of these is NOT one of the formed elements of blood?

antibodies

Plasma composes about _________ percent of whole blood, and water composes _________ percent of the plasma volume.

55, 92

Each of the following is a characteristic of whole blood, EXCEPT a:

viscosity about the same as water.

The function of hemoglobin is to:

carry oxygen

All the circulating red blood cells originate in the:

red bone marrow

The average lifespan of a red blood cells is:

4 months

Most of the iron that is removed from degraded hemoglobin is:

recycled to the red bone marrow

The process of red blood cell production is called:

erythropoiesis

A person with Type A blood has:

antigen A on the RBC's and anti-B antibodies in the plasma.

Bill wants to determine his blood type, so he takes a few drops of blood from a puncture wound in his finger and mixes it wiht various antisera. His blood cells agglutinate when mixed with the anti-A sera but not with the anti-B or anti-D sera. This means:

-Bill could receive type A negative blood in a transfusion.
-Bill could donate blood to an individual with type AB blood.
-Bill is Rh negative.
-Bill's plasma contains B antibodies
ALL OF THE ABOVE

Hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if:

an Rh-negative mother carries an Rh-positive fetus.

Which of these descriptions best matches the term lymphocytes?

defend against specific pathogens or toxins

In adults, the only site of red blood cell production, and the primary site of white blood cell formation, is the:

red bone marrow

_________ involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.

coagulation

_________ is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced.

Anemia

Compared to arteries, veins....

have thinner walls.

Which of the following are the smallest venous vessels?

venules

Elastic fibers in the walls of which vessels are stretched as the heart beats?

arteries

RBC's move single file through this structure.

capillary

Oxygen, waste, nutrients, and other molecules exchange by diffusion with tissue cells in which of the following locations?

capillary

Which of the following is not a characteristic of venous valves?

channeling blood away from the heart

Pulmonary arteries carry blood to the....

lungs

Which of the following breaks the rule that arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart?

pulmonary arteries

The brachial artery branches to form the radial and _________ arteries.

ulnar

The external iliac artery becomes the ____________ artery as it enters the lower limbs.

femoral

Most of the middle layer in the heart wall is composed of....

cardiac muscle cells

In the middle of the thoracic cavity is a region occuppied by the heart, great vessels, thymus, esophagus, and trachea called the....

mediastinum

The earlike extension of the atrium is the ....

auricle

The interventricular sulci and coronary sulcus contain:
>fat
>arteries
>veins
>all of the above
>none of the above

all of the above

Coronary veins empty into the...

right atrium

The atrioventricular valves permit blood flow

in one direction only

The cusps (leaflets) of atrioventricular valves attach directly to ....

chordae tendineae

The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the...

interatrial septum

Identify the pulmonary semilunar valve....

the valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arch

Identify the papillary muscles....

the muscles that pull the valves of the tricuspid valve open and shut

Identify the cusp of tricuspid valve...

the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

If a patient's tricuspid valve was leaking during systole, what would happen?

regurgitation into the right atrium

The normal pacemaker of the heart is located in the ...

sinoatrial node

Pacemaker cells in the SA node...

generate action potentials that spread to the myocardium.

Blood pressure is highest here.

artery

As blood travels from arteries to veins,

pressure drops

Blood pressure is lowest in the

veins

Exchange between a blood vessel and the cells that surround it can occur only in...

capillaries

Which of the following would you expect to have the lowest resting heart rate?

a trained athlete

Thy lymphoid system is composed of all the following, except

the venae cavae

The primary function of the lymphoid system is...

defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats.

The lymphocytes are most important in....

fighting infection

Compared to blood capillaries, lymph capillaries exhibit all of the following, except that they...

are larger in diameter

Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the ...

thoracic duct

The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions, except the...

right breast

Lymphocytes...

respond to antigens

_________ are large lymphoid nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx.

tonsils

Lymphoid organs differ from lymphoid tissues in what way?

They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphoid tissues are not.

The body's nonspecific defenses include all of the following except...

B and T cells.

Various types of macrophages are derived from....

monocytes

Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include:
>sebaceous glands
>mucus
>epithelia
>epidermal layers
>all of the above

all of the above

The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ________ cells.

NK

Inflammation produces localized::
>swelling
>redness
>heat
>pain
>all of the above

all of the above

Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are....

allergies

Autoantibodies

are directed against the body's own antigens.

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