Essentials of Human Diseases and Conditions Fifth Edition Chapter 1

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Homeostasis

internal stability of the body

Pathological conditions

Involve measurable changes in normal structure and function that threaten the internal stability

Pathology

Scientific study of disease

Pathogenesis

the origination and development of a disease in stages

Systemic health

Internal equilibrium

Disease state

Inability to adapt to internal/external stressors or challenges

syndrome

Defined collection of signs and symptoms that characterize a condition

Symptoms

Subjective patient reports (not based on facts)
Ex: pain, fatigue, headache

Signs

Facts- abnormal objective findings
Ex:fever, redness, swelling, xray of broken bine

Acute illness

Onset is usually abrupt
Symptoms present themselves over hours to days
Duration brief (<6 months)

chronic illness

Onset is slower
Symptoms persist from acute/sub-acute phases
Duration indefinite (>6 months)

Autosomal dominant mode of inheritence for genetic diseases

Single abnormal gene on only one of a chromosome pair will cause disease (AA)

autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for genetic diseases

same abnormal gene present on both chromosomes of a pair

X-linked (sex-linked) recessive mode of inheritance for genetic diseases

Abnormal gene is only located on an x chromosome (brought on by mother)

genetic mutations

Changes that occur in the genetic code that 1. Are passed from one generation to the next 2.may occur spontaneously 3.may be caused by agents that disrupt the normal dna sequence ( like chemicals and radiation)

modes of transmission for infection

Direct or indirect physical contact
Body fluids/blood
Inhalation
Ingestion
Insect/animal

Pathogenic agents include

Bacteria
Fungi
Protozoa
Viruses

Bodys defense systems against infection

Natural mechanical (skin) and chemical (sunscreen) barriers
Inflammatory response
Immune response

Which of the following are included in the body's natural defense system?
A . mechanical and chemical barriers
B . inflammatory response
C . immune response
D. All of the above

D.

Which of the following describe how a pathogen can cause disease?
A. Intoxification
B . invasion and destruction of living tissue
C . infiltration of dead tissue
D. Both a and b

d.

Pain as described by the patient is
A. Objective
B. Experienced the same in everyone
C. Subjective and individualized
D. Never referred to other regions of the body

C.

acute inflammatory response is marked by

Redness, swelling, heat, pain, loss of function,

Acute inflammatory responses are inhibited by

Immune disorders

Acute inflammatory responses are inhibited by

chronic illness

Acute inflammatory responses are inhibited by

medications, especially steroids

Cancer

A group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation or growth

With cancer the uncontrolled growth..

Proliferates at the expense of healthy cells and tissues
Can develop into masses of abnormal cells or tumors

Benign tumors

develop slowly
Can arise from any tissue
Usually remain encapsulated (self-contained)
Rarely recur after surgical removal

Malignant tumors

Cells multiply rapidly
Do not usually resemble the tissue of orgin
Invade surrounding tissue
Often recurrent
Infiltrate to distant sites (metastasize)

cancer risk factors

Tobacco smoke ( active and passive)

cancer risk factors

Heavy use of alcohol
Exposure to environmental carcinogens

cancer risk factors

High fat/low fiber diet
Excessive exposure to sunlight/UV light

cancer risk factors

Exposure to radon/radiation

cancer risk factors-all

Tobacco use
Heavy alcohol use
High fat low fiber diet
Exposure to environmental carcinogens
Excessive exposure to uv light and sunlight
Sedentary lifestyle
Exposure to radon and radiation

A new tissue growth or a tumor is called a
A. Mutation
B. Neoplasm
C. Biopsy
D. None of the above

B.

cancer screening guidlines for men

PSA test (prostate-specific antigen)
Testicular self exam

cancer screening guidelines for women

Pap smear
Mammogram
Breast self exam

Cancer treatment

Surgery
Radiation
Chemotherapy
Hormone therapy
Immunotherapy
Palliative therapy

The concept of medical care that focuses on the needs of the whole person-spiritual, cognitive, social, physical, and emotional-is the
A. Holistic concept
B. Hospice concept
C. Osteopathy concept
D. None of the above

A.

the concept of care that affirms life and neither hastens or postpones death is
A. Holistic concept
B. Hospice philosophy
C. Osteopathy concept
D. None of the above

B.

Hospice care

Comfort and supportive care for the patient and family during the terminal stages of illness and into the bereavement period
Emphasis on palliative care

Holistic medical care

Acupuncture/chiropractic/hypnosis

What is NOT a predisposing factor
A. Age
B. Gender
C. Pollution of air and water
D. Lifestyle
E. Environment
F. Heredity

C.

Predisposing factors related to lifestyle include
A . gender
B. Age
C. Pollution of air and water
D. Smoking, poor nutrition, lack exercise, risky sexual behavior

D.

what happens during aging process

metabolic changes
decreased total body water
changes in body composition (increased adipose tissue, decreased muscle mass)
decreased bone density

pain physiology

1.stimulation of nociceptors found on free nerve endings
2.impulses travel through spinal cord to brain
3.usually signals injury or tissue damage
4.may travel a parallel pathway along spinal cord to brain, resulting in referred pain in another part of the body

two types of analgestics (pain relievers)

opiods and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

Antigen

a substance that causes the allergic response

allergic disease

is a hypersensitivity of the body to a substance (allergen).

Psychological Pain causes

feelings of sadness, despair, anger, depression, helplessness, hopelessness
thought process may be impaired
sleep patterns may be disrupted
may exhibit changes in personality
may cry or show signs of withdrawal

Diagnosis of disease

medical history, physical exam, lab tests, imaging tests, biopsy, misc. tests.

Genetic counsiling

communication process that revolves around the occurance of or potential for a genetic disorder within a family

Gene therapy

experimental intervention repairs or blocks the expression of specific genes to treat disease
the disease treated may either be inherited or aquired

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