Medical terminology chapter 14

87 terms by Kater04 

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A disease which occurs most commonly in women between the ages of 20 and 50 and is characterized by destruction of joint surfaces, joint capsule and ligaments causing marked deformity and joint instability is

Rhematoid arthritis

A fracture that occurs at a site already weakened by a disease process such as cancer is called a ___________________ fracture.

pathologic

A patient had a rash on the flat anterior surface of the hand. The physician writes in the patient's medical record that the rash is located on the ________________ surface of the hand.

...

A patient lying on his or her stomach is said to be in a _______________ position.

prone

A person trained as an orthopedic technologist can be expected to

assist orthopedic surgeons in their treatments of patients.

A surgical procedure of the hand involving the complete replacement of a damaged finger joint with and artificial joint made of silicone rubber is called a (an)__________.

arthroplasty...

A type of bone fracture in which the bone breaks into several pieces is classified as a ______________ fracture.

comminuted

A type of fracture in which one side of the bone is partially broken and the other side is bent is called a (an)_______________________ fracture.

greenstick

An abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column is called_______________.

scoliosis

An____________ tool or piece of equipment, such as a special computer keyboard, is designed to prevent worker injury and discomfort in the workplace.

ergonomic

An abbreviation that refers to a wear and tear disease caused by the breakdown and eventual destruction of cartilage in a joint, such as osteoarthritis, is

DJD

An exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature of the vertebral column is called

kyphosis

An inherited condition in which bone formation is incomplete, leading to fragile, easily broken bone is

osteoporosis

Bone growth is affected by all of the following factors except

hydration

Bones that have sutures between the bones occur in which of the following areas of the body?

...

Bony lumps on the terminal phalanx of the fingers, called Heberden Nodes, are often associated with which of the following conditions?

osteoarthritis

Carpal tunnel syndrome develops as a result of inflammation and swellling of________ in the wrist>

tendon sheaths

Cells that produce the matrix of new bone tissue are called

osteoblasts

In the term osteomyelitis, what does the root refer to?

bone marrow

In the word achondroplasia, what does the suffix mean?

formation

In the word adduction, the prefix means

toward

In the word epiphysis, what does the root mean?

growth

In the word fibromyalgia, what does the suffix mean?

pain

In the word interphalangeal, the prefix means

between

In the word malunion, the prefix means

bad

In the word meniscectomy, what does the suffix mean?

excision

In the word osteopenia, the suffix mean?

deficiency

In the word atrophy, what does the prefix mean and what does the root mean?

The prefix means without, and the root means nourishment.

Of the following definitions, which one best describes the triceps brachii muscle?

...

The abbreviation for fracture is:

Fx

The abbreviation for the joint that acts like a hinge when one opens and closes the mouth is

TMJ

The adjective form of the word thorax is

thoracic

The correct spelling of the term that means an incomplete dislocation in which some contact between joint surfaces remains is

subluxation

The function of the intervertebral discs is to

provide cushioning for the vertebral column.

The goal for repairing a fracture is to bring the bones into alignment by pulling on the distal end of the fractured bone. This process is called

alignment

The joint movement in which person rotates his or her forearm so that the palm is facing upward is called______________

supination

The medical words for upper jawbone and lower jawbone are

maxilla,mandible

The plural form of the word that means a bone of a finger or toe is

phalanges

The process of removing a limb, a part of a limb, a breast, or some other projecting part of the body is called a (an)____________________________.

amputation

The root in the word orthopedic means

child

The root in the word sarcoma means

flesh

The suffix in the word rhabdomyolysis means

destruction

The suffix in the word osteoclast means

break down

The taking of an x-ray of a joint after the injection of a contrast medium into the joint is called a (an)

arthrography

The term that means bringing the ends of bones at a break back together opposite each other so that they fit together as they did in the original bone is___________________

alignment

The three vitamins needed for bone growth are

vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin D

The two minerals stored by the skeletal system are

calcium and phosphorus

The word resorption means

bone destruction

The word that means surgical puncture to remove fluid from a joint is________________.

arthrocentesis

The word which means creation of new bone is__________________________.

...

The word which means muscle shortening due to spasm or fibrosis is

contracture

What are the four components of the skeletal system?

ligaments, tendons, bones, and cartilage

What is the abbreviation for the classification of drugs such as ibuprofen, which are commonly used to treat musculoskeletal disorders?

NSAID

What is the correct spelling of the long bone of the upper arm?

humerus

What is the difference between a strain and a sprain?

a sprain is a strech or tear of a ligament; a strain is a stretch or tear in the muscle or tendon

What is the name of the bone that articulates with the tibia to from the ankle joint?

talus

What is the plural form of the medical term that means disc of connective tissue cartilage between the bones of a joint, for example, in the knee joint?

meniscus

Where is the popliteal fossa located

in the hollow at the back of the knee

Which of the following characteristics is used to determine how a bone is classified?

...

Which of the following conditions is caused by the breakdown and eventual destruction of cartilage in a joint?

osteoarthritis

Which of the following conditions is characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal muscles and is considered to be a chronic; autoimmune disease?

myasthenia gravis

Which of the following diseases has the same pathologic effect on bones as rickets?

osteomalacia

Which of the following disorders refers to the condition in which there is overstretching or tearing of the dense sheet of fascia that supports the arch of the foot?

plantar fasciitis

Which of the following individuals focuses on the manual adjustment of joints, particularly the spine, to maintain and restore health?

chiropractors

Which of the following pairs of prefixes have the same or similar meaning?

...

Which of the following statements correctly described the blood supply to bones?

blood travels through the bone in a system of small canals.

Which of the following statements is true regarding the functions of the skeletal system?

the vertebral column protects the spinal cord.

Which of the following terms means incomplete dislocation when some contact between joint surfaces remains?

subluxation

Which of the following terms referring to the shat of a long bone is spelled correctly?

diaphysis

Which of the following terms refers to one or two bony prominences near the head of the femur?

trochanter

Which of the following terms refers to the surgical removal of hypertrophied connective tissue to release a contracture?

fasciectomy

Which of the following terms, meaning the specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and injuries to the foot, is spelled correctly?

podiatry

Which of the following words mean fixation or stiffening of a joint by surgery?

arthrodesis

Which of the following words refers to an opening through a structure?

foramen

Which of the following words refers to movement of a body part anterior to the coronal plane?

flexion

Which of the following words refers to the fatty, blood-forming tissue in the cavities of lone bones?

marrow

Women at risk for developing osteoporosis should have a bone mineral density (BMD) screening using which of the following procedures?

DEXA

___________refers to the gentle, continuous application of pulling force that can align a fracture, reduce muscle spasms, and relieve pain.

traction

___________ is a general term for a group of hereditary,progressive disorders affecting skeletal muscle

muscular dystrophy

Which best describes Mrs. Smith's condition

osteoarthritis

Follow-up for the complications of osteoporosis as they affect the spine. Mrs. Smith had a 6 mo. history of progressive disabling back pain visibly associated with progressive kyphotic deformity of the thoracolumbar spine, with an attendant cervical lordosis. X-rays of the thoracic spine reveal a compression fracture of T11 and L1. I advised the patient that such fractures, even without trauma, may be complications of underlying osteoporosis as severe as hers.

...

What type of spinal deformity is present?

Posterior curvature of the chest and anterior curvature of the neck

The patient is having pain around the medial aspect of his left knee. About 12 yrs. ago he had a tear of his medial meniscus (crescent-shaped fibrocartilage), which was removed. On examination he has a well-healed medial scar to his left knee; there was no effusion; full ROM (range of motion); and it is stable.
X-rays show very slight scarring of the medial femoral condyle and a small accessory bone medially, but nothing in the interior of the joint. The great toe shows a healed fracture. There was no obvious exostosis impinging on the base of the nail.

...

What is femoral condyle?

at the knee joint

An exostosis is

...

Where is the medial meniscus?

In the middle of the knee

Effusion in a joint means:

There is fluid in the joint space

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