A group of interrelated components that function together to achieve a desired result.
An arrangement of people, data, processes and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization.
A contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunications technology (data, image, and voice networks).
Transaction processing system
An information system that captures and processes data about business transactions.
Management information system
An information system that provides for management-oriented reporting based on transaction processing and operations of the organization.
decision support system
an information system that either helps to identify decision-making opportunities or provides information to help make decisions.
Executive Information system
an information system that supports the planning and assessment needs of executive managers.
an information system that captures the expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise to the benefit of nonexperts.
Communications and collaboration system
an information system that enables more effective communications between workers, partners, customers, and suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate.
Office automation system
an information system that supports the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow between workers.
any person who has an interest in the existing or proposed information system. Stakeholders may include both technical and non-technical workers. They may also include both internal and external workers.
any person whose job involves creating, collecting, processing, distributing, and using information.
An information system's sponsor and executive advocate, usually responsible for funding the project of developing, operating, and maintaining the information system.
A "customer" who will use or is affected by an information system on regular basis -- capturing, validating, entering, responding to, storing, and exchanging data and information.
any worker whose responsibilities are based on a specialized body of knowledge.
a user who is not physically located on the premises but who still requires access to information systems.
A user whose location is constantly changing but who requires access to information systems from any location
a technical specialist who translates system users' business requirements and constraints into technical solutions. She or he designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networks, and software that will meet the system users' requirements.
A technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by the system designers
a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business.
External service provider
a systems analyst, system designer, or system builder who sells his or her expertise and experience to other businesses to help those businesses purchase, develop, or integrate their information systems solutions; may be affiliated with a consulting or services organization.
an experienced profession who accepts responsibility for planning, monitoring, and controlling projects with respect to schedule, budget, deliverables, customer satisfaction, technical standards, and system quality.
the buying and selling of goods and services by using the internet
the use of the internet to conduct and support day-to-day business activites
raw facts about people, places, events, and things that are of importance in an organization. Each fact is, by itself, relatively meaningless
data that has been processed or reorganized into a more meaningful form for someone. Information is formed from combinations of data that hopefully have meaning to the recipient.
data and information that are further refined based on the facts, truths, beliefs, judgments, experiences, and expertise of the recipient. Ideally information leads to wisdom.
tasks that respond to business events (e.g., an order). Business processes are the work, procedures, and rules required to complete the business tasks, independent of any information technology used to automate or support them.
continuous process improvement
The continuous monitoring of business processes to effect small but measurable improvements in cost reduction and value added.
total quality management
a comprehensive approach to facilitating quality improvements and management within a business
business process redesign
the study, analysis, and redesign of fundamental business processes to reduce costs and/or improve value added to the business
a software technology that defines a system in terms of objects that consolidate data and behavior (into objects). Objects became reusable and extensible components for the software developers.
Object-oriented analysis and design
A collection of tools and techniques for systems development that will utilize object technologies to construct a system and its software.
A systems development strategy wherein the system developers are given the flexibility to select from a variety of appropriate tools and techniques to best accomplish the tasks at hand. Agile development is believed to strike an optimal balance between productivity and quality for systems development.
the process of building a unified information system out of diverse components of purchased software, custom-built software, hardware , and networking.
enterprise resource planning
a software application that fully integrates information systems that span most or all of the basic, core business functions (including transaction processing and management information for those business functions).
Supply chain management
A software application that optimizes business processes for raw material procurement through finished product distribution by directly integrating the logistical information systems of organizations with those of their suppliers and distributors.
Customer relationship management
a software application that provides customers with access to a business's processes from initial inquiry through post-sale service and support.
enterprise application integration
the process and technologies used to link applications to support the flow of data and information between those applications. EAI solutions are usually based on middleware.
software (usually purchased) used to translate and route data between different applications.
system development process
a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools that stakeholders use to develop and maintain information systems and software.
The activity of defining, planning, directing, monitoring, and controlling a project to develop an acceptable system within the alloted time and budget.
the ongoing activity that defines, improves, and coordinates the use of an organization's chosen methodology (the "process") and standards for all system development projects.
the initial planning for a project to define initial business scope, goals, schedule, and budget.
the study of a business problem domain to recommend improvements and specify the business requirements and priorities for the solution.
the specification or construction of a technical, computer-based solution for the business requirements identified in a system analysis. (Note: Increasingly, the design takes the form of a working prototype).
the construction, installation, testing, and delivery of a system into production (meaning day-to-day operation).