PSA (prostate specific antigen), Cultures, Semen analysis, prostatic biopsy, testicular biopsy, Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) these are all what kind of Tests done on the male reproductive system?
PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN
a PSA test is <4 if normal. You should wait 24-48 hours after a DRE to do this. What is a PSA?
CULTURE & SENSITIVITY
In this test (male reproductive) you are checking for infections & STD's.
In this test the normal level is <4, if elevated prostate cancer may be present.
DIGITAL RECTAL EXAM (DRE)
In this test the doctor will palpate the prostate. The Dr. will do this before ordering a PSA test. The PSA test cannot be done for 24-48 hours after a DRE.
This is an inflammation of the epididymis. It can happen as a result of a direct injury or reflux of urine, also STD's or Mumps. BILATERAL WILL CAUSE STERILITY. If left untreated, testes will become necrotic, septic and may lead to death. Can be classified as Sterile or Non Sterile.
Blood in the urine
Enlarged breasts (in the male), a result of the hormonal chemotherapy agent Zoladex. Also a symptom of Testicular cancer.
This inflammation of the epididymis is because of a direct injury or reflux of urine down the vas deferens.
This inflammation of the epididymis is a result of a sexually transmitted disease, STD or Mumps, TB, prostatis or urethritis. Prolonged use of an indwelling catheter or an invasive procedure can also lead to this type of inflammation.
Difficulty initiating the urinary stream
Inability of an adult male to have an erection firm enough or to maintain it long enough to complete sexual intercourse
Inability or diminished ability to produce offspring
Awakening at night to void
Removal of a testis
Urine that remains in the bladder after urination
Prolonged erection (4 hours) that does not occur in response to sexual stimulation. Cuts off the blood flow & causes necrosis.
Inflammation of the prostate. Due to urethratitis (Ghonerea or clamidia). If chronic, the prostate becomes fibrotic and can be confused with cancer. Can be Chronic or Acute. Can be Bacterial or Abacterial (WILL FEEL IT IN LOWER BACK AREA). Use stool softeners to reduce pain.
Production of sperm, regulated by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), produced by the anterior pituitary gland.
PROSTSATE URETHRAL STENT
Balloon dilation of the prostate during an endoscopic examination, breaks the prostatic capsule & facilitates decompression of the prostate. A stent is used to hold tissue in place and provide support to the urethra, which is being compressed by the prostate.
A client with this should NOT be catheterized, because the infection spreads rapidly to the genital organs due to the trauma of catheterization.
Spasmodic contradiction of the anal or bladder sphincter, causing pain & a persistent urge to empty the bowel or bladder
Transurethral resection of the prostate. Arterial scope thru urethra, scrape sides of the prostate.
After this kind of surgery, Beladonna & Opium suppositories are often used to decrease bladder spasms.
Continuous Bladder Irrigation abrev.
Formation of a permanent fistula opening into the urethra
Surgical resection of the vas deferens
this is the most common cancer in young men 15-35 years of age. Cause unknown. It is important for young men to do Testicular Self Exams. The testis should feel like a hard- boiled egg, firm with no bumps, and the epididymis should feel like a soft tube.
Rare inflammation or infection of the testes, complication of blood-borne pathogens (infection) originating in the epididymitis. Also caused by gonorrhea, trauma, surgery, TB & mumps that occur after puberty. In most instances both testes are involved and often sterility results. This will cause INGUINAL Pain. Sudden scrotal pain, with pain radiating to the INGUINAL CANAL (Groin), scrotal edema, chills, fever, nausea & vomiting.
This is a RARE cancer in men. Mostly in uncircumcised & not very hygienic male. Bacteria harbors in prepuse & are irritants causing carcigenic cancer. Presents with no pain, fatigue & nodular growths. Surgery is usually a Penectomy and client with have a urethrostomy in place after surgery.
This is a slow growing cancer(adenocarcinomas) of the prostate. 2nd leading cause of death in males. Early symptoms include: dysuria, weak urinary stream, increased urinary frequency. Surgical interventions are/is a Prostectomy, but this can cause retrograde ejaculation into the bladder and cause bladder infections. Also Chemo & Radiation.
LUPRON & ZOLADEX
These are hormonal Chemotherapy Agents (antineoplastic) used to treat Prostate cancers.
BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH)
SLOW enlargement of the prostate gland. Normal part of aging in men (prostate grows). Causes decreased force in stream. Obstruction causes, dysuria, frequency, hesitancy, dribbling, RECURRENT UTI'S. Treat w/hytrin & cardura. Meds can cause HypOtension.
Fluid in the scrotal sac between testes & scrotal sac. Aspirate/drain fluid. Surgery if becomes bothersome or cuts off blood supply.
Failure of the testes to descend into scrotal sac by birth. Surgery between ages of 5 & 7, Testosterone after puberty if client fails to produce male characteristics.
TESTICULAR SELF EXAMS
It is important for young men to do Testicular Self Exams. The testis should feel like a hard-boiled egg, firm with no bumps, and the epididymis should feel like a soft tube.
RADICAL INGUIANAL ORCHIECTOMY
This is a surgical procedure to remove a testicle and the full spermatic cord and inguinal canal contents, through an incision in the abdomen done for testicular cancer. This is the primary treatment, although chemotherapy & radiation are used as adjuvant treatments.
CONTINUOUS BLADDER IRRIGATION
This is when the bladder is continuously irrigated with normal saline or other solution during a TURP. This irrigation is continued during the postoperative period to reduce clot formation that can interfere with urinary drainage. Accurately record I & O (deduct amount of irrigation water from output). 3-way Foley (remove <1,000 ml initially when inserting foley).
Early signs of water intoxication are changes in ____ _____, may be manifested by agitation, confusion & convulsions. May have slow bounding pulse & increase in systolic & decrease in diastolic BP. Hypertension, bradycardia, weakness & seizures.
Transurethral resection of the Prostate. A traditional surgical intervention for 90% of all prostate surgeries for BPH. Performed via a Resectoscope. Removes small pieces of prostate tissue. Continuously irrigated during postoperative period. Watch for water intoxication, hemorrhage, infection, thromobisis, etc.
In this test, (male reproductive) you are checking for sperm count, motility & viadilaty
This is a fleshy structure suspended below the perineum, anterior to the anus, divided into 2 parts, contains a testis, an epididymis and a portion of the spermatic cord (vas deferens). Left side usually lower than right because left spermatic cord is often longer
The oval endocrine glands of the male, suspended in the scrotum.
Gland that sits on top & behind the teste where sperm matures.
A long tube, attached to the epididymis, forms the spermatic cord in which sperm travel to the seminal vesicles (where semen is produced) and then mixes with semen and ejaculate.
This is an encapsulated gland that encircles the proximal portion of the urethra. A common site for malignant disease or benign enlargement that can cause urethral obstruction.
A fold of skin that surrounds the tip of the penis in the uncircumcised male.