PHIL 1040 CH 5

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"On Human Exchange and Human Differences" Adam Smith:
Most often the connection among species is independent, only a result of chance as opposed to conceived cooperation to achieve a goal. What reason does he give for just how interconnected all species are?

The reason Adam Smith gives is that we are independent by nature. Therefore, to gain assistance from another human, one must serve the other persons interest. So, if you need help with project a, then the person who is effectively able to help you must understand how helping you benefits them. This method takes into account the underlying self-serving nature of humans.

Who said "Give me that which I want, and you shall have that which you want."

Smith

"On Human Exchange and Human Differences" Adam Smith:
What is meant in the example given of:
In a herd of people hunting, one person makes great bows and arrows. This person, in creating great bows and arrows for others can sustain himself much more efficiently than if he hunted himself as he is not good at this.

The division of labor sprung from the loins of reality. Meaning, it is by treaty, by barter or purchase that we obtain goods and services from one another. By specializing, one positions themselves to obtain more.

"On Human Exchange and Human Differences" Adam Smith:
What does he conclude in his discussion of how society can achieve its highest good?

He concludes that the highest good for all will result if each individual member of society is allowed to pursue her or his own idea of the good (and not interfering with others), so that everyone may cultivate the talents particular to him or her.

"On Human Exchange and Human Differences" Adam Smith:
Why does he believe that "self-love" is a good thing?

Man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only. He will be more likely to prevail if he can interest their self-love in his favor, and show them that it is for their own advantage to do for him what he requires of them. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages.

"On Human Exchange and Human Differences" Adam Smith:
Why does he discuss the differences in people's talents and why it is important that the difference in talents is not so large as we often suppose?

All must have the same duties to perform, and the same work to do, and there could have been no such difference of employment as could alone give occasion to any great difference of talents. As it is this disposition which forms that difference of talents so remarkable among men of different professions, so it is this same disposition which renders that difference useful.

"On Human Exchange and Human Differences" Adam Smith:
Adam Smith argues that animals are able to "contract" just as humans do.
-yes
-no
-sometimes, but not deliberately
-none of the above

no

"On Human Exchange and Human Differences" Adam Smith:
True or False.
Adam Smith is opposed to the division of labor.

false

"On Human Exchange and Human Differences" Adam Smith:
True or False.
Adam Smith insists on the importance and usefulness of human differences and human exchange.

true

"A Latin Viewpoint: The Bentonville Menace" Latin Trade:
What is the problem with Wal-Mart in Latin America?

Latin American governments are grappling with weak economies and need all the jobs they can get. Wal-Mart offers lots of them. Latin American leaders must not be forced to cower to foreign investors who threaten to move elsewhere if they do not play by the rules of take no-prisoners US capitalism.

"A Latin Viewpoint: The Bentonville Menace" Latin Trade:
Is economic justice more important than low prices? Should we be shopping at Wal-Mart?

Consumers should think twice about patronizing any business that perpetuates economic injustice. Everyday social justice is more important than low prices at any cost.

How does the article from Latin Trade counter the free market argument that was derived from Adam Smiths position?

By showing how free markets may result in the weak being exploited by the powerful.

"A Latin Viewpoint: The Bentonville Menace" Latin Trade:
Wal-Mart is criticized because,
-it pays meager salaries in a country where their is no required minimum wage
- the management lies to its employees
-it engages in deceptive advertising practices
-it violates current antitrust law
-none of the above

it pays meager salaries in a country where their is no required minimum wage

Joanne Ciulla discuses the problem of ________ in the workplace.
-exploitation
-happiness
-jealousy
-secrecy
-deception

exploitation

"Exploitation of Need" Joanne B. Ciulla:
True or False.
Locke insists that we neither own our own labor nor own our own freedom

false

Who argues that one's labor is an extension of one's body?
-Ciulla
-Soloman
-Kant
-Locke
-Hume

Locke

"Exploitation of Need" Joanne B. Ciulla:
Ciulla state that _______ is something that can be bartered.
-consent
-happiness
-freedom
-none of the above
-all of the above

freedom

"Exploitation of Need" Joanne B. Ciulla:
How does Ciulla further develop the notion that the free market may result in the weak being exploited by the powerful?

by showing when, how, and why the weak may even choose to be exploited by the mighty

"Exploitation of Need" Joanne B. Ciulla:
What does Ciulla mean by "self-enslavement?"

A person in need of support and/or protection would sell himself to another. This choice, thought more or less freely made, was grounded in the same fears of starvation and violence found in other forms of slavery.

"Exploitation of Need" Joanne B. Ciulla:
What is Ciulla describing when talking about "Monkey Labor"

The case of Monkey Labor illustrates how the logic of exploitation justifies taking advantage of those in need by arguing that one is taking care of people's needs. Exploitation is also about using one's power over others to determine what people need and what they should be willing to trade to have their needs filled. Similarly, the farmer decides that the monkey needs three meals a day and assumes that the monkey is willing to give up its freedom for them. Sometimes employers fill "needs" that employees do not have or want.

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
What is Rawls justice as fairness

The idea that the principles of justice for the basic structure of society are the object of the original agreement. They are the principles that free and rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in in an initial position of equality as defining the fundamental terms of their association. These principles are to regulate all further agreements: they specify the kinds of social cooperation that can be entered into and the forms of government that can be established.

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
What are the essential features of the original position presented by Rawls?

That no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does any one know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength, and the like. Parties do not know their conceptions of the good or their special psychological propensities.

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
What does Rawls purpose is ensured when the principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance?

that no one is advantaged or disadvantaged in the choice of principles by the outcome of natural chance or the contingency of social circumstances.

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
What does Rawls maintain that the two principles chosen by persons in the initial position are.

the first requires equality in the assignment of basic rights and duties, while the second holds that social and economic inequalities, for example inequalities of wealth and authority, are just only if they result in compensating benefits for everyone, in particular for the least advantaged members of society.

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
What are the two principles of justice that Rawls' believes would be chosen in the original position?

First: each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others. Second: social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both reasonably expected to be to everyone's advantage and attached to positions and offices open to all

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
According to Rawls, what are the basic liberties of citizens?

political liberty (the right to vote and the be eligible for public office) together with freedom of speech and assembly; liberty of conscience and freedom of thought; freedom of the person along with the right to hold (personal) property; and freedom from arbitrary arrest and seizure as defined by the concept of the rule of law.

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
According to Rawls, what does the second principle of justice believed to be chosen in the original position apply to

to the distribution of income and wealth and to the design of organizations that makes use of differences in authority and responsibility, or chains of command.

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
Rawls argues social and economic inequalities so that they are:
-eliminated
-equal
-attached to positions and offices open to all
-compatible with liberty
-none of the above

attached to positions and offices open to all

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
True or False.
Rawls argues that the distribution of wealth and income in a society, once formed, should always be absolutely equal.

false

"Justice as Fairness" John Rawls:
True or False.
Rawls insists that free exchange is at the heart of justice.

false

How does Rawls continue the line of thinking established by Smith how free markets may result in the weak being exploited by the powerful.

"justice as fairness" and that society should be structured so as to benefit all, which means arranging things so as to assist the most needy and the least naturally fortunate

"Anarchy, State, and Utopia" Robert Nozick:
What are the three major topics on the subject of justice in holdings?

First, the original acquisition of holdings, the appropriation of unheld things. Second, the transfer of holdings from one person to another. Third, the rectification of injustice in holdings.

"Anarchy, State, and Utopia" Robert Nozick:
What principle of justice in holdings specifies the legitimate means of moving from one distribution to another.

the principle of justice in transfer

"Anarchy, State, and Utopia" Robert Nozick:
What does the following example represent:
The fact that a thief's victims voluntarily could have presented him with gifts does not entitle the thief to his ill-gotten gains.

That from a just situation a situation could have arisen vie justice-preserving means does not suffice to show its justice

"Anarchy, State, and Utopia" Robert Nozick:
What theory of justice in distribution is historical; wether a distribution is just depends upon how it came about

the entitlement theory of justice in distribution

"Anarchy, State, and Utopia" Robert Nozick:
What theory of justice specifies that all that needs to be looked at, in judging the justice of a distribution, is who ends up with what; in comparing any two distributions one need look only at the matrix presenting the distributions.

the current time-slice principle

"Anarchy, State, and Utopia" Robert Nozick:
What is "end-result principles" also known as end-state principles?

unhistorical principles of distributive justice

"Anarchy, State, and Utopia" Robert Nozick:
What are historical principles of justice?

they hold that past circumstances or actions of people can create differential entitlements or differential deserts to things

"Anarchy, State, and Utopia" Robert Nozick:
What is distribution according to IQ an example of

a patterned principle

"Anarchy, State, and Utopia" Robert Nozick:
What pattern of distribution does Hayek suggest is justifiable

distribution in accordance with the perceived benefits given to others, leaving room for the complaint that a free society does not realize exactly this pattern

"Rich and Poor" Peter Singer:
Define relative poverty

meaning that some citizens are poor, relative to the wealth enjoyed by their neighbors

"Rich and Poor" Peter Singer:
How does McNamara sum up absolute poverty

a condition of life so characterized by malnutrition, illiteracy, disease, squalid surroundings, high infant mortality and low life expectancy as to be beneath any reasonable definition of human decency

"Rich and Poor" Peter Singer:
How does Singer define absolute poverty

the lack of sufficient income in cash or kind to meet the most basic biological needs for food, clothing, and shelter

"Rich and Poor" Peter Singer:
What is the defining characteristic of absolute affluence

a significant amount of income above the level necessary to provide for the basic human needs of oneself and one's dependents

"Rich and Poor" Peter Singer:
How does Peter Singer Discuss the problem of wealth and poverty in a global context

by arguing that we have a moral (and also a practical) duty to help those humans who are living under such poverty (what he calls "absolute poverty") that their lives are barely worth living.

One factor that illustrates absolute poverty is:
-a life expectancy one quarter lower
- a 40 percent less adult literacy rate
-an infant mortality rate seven times higher than average
-none of the above
-all of the above

none of the above

Peter Singer discusses the drowning child to demonstrate that:
-we have no obligations to children
-there is no law that requires us to be good Samaritans
-distance is irrelevant when it comes to our duty to assist the poor
-a and b
-none of the above

distance is irrelevant when it comes to our duty to assist the poor

True or False:
Singer argues that poorer nations could produce far more food and products if they made use of modern agricultural techniques.

true

"A Capitalist Conception of Justice" Irving Kristol:
What answer dies Kristol give for "Is capitalism compatible with social justice?"

no

"A Capitalist Conception of Justice" Irving Kristol:
What reason does Kristol give for why Capitalism is incompatible with social justice

Since capitalism as a socioeconomic or political system is neither egalitarian nor authoritarian, it is in truth incompatible with social justice

In Adam Smith's book "The Theory of Moral Sentiments" what does he identify is the highest human sentiment

sympathy-the sympathy that men and women have for one another as human beings

"A Capitalist Conception of Justice" Irving Kristol:
Who decided that capitalist economics should not deal with the production of wealth but rather with its distribution

Malthus and then Ricardo

"A Capitalist Conception of Justice" Irving Kristol:
How does Kristol argue that capitalism does not require the creation of a common authority charged with redistributing wealth

While we may have an obligation to help those less fortunate than ourselves, that does not mean we should have a centralized power (like a government and a tax structure) to tell us who, when, and how to help those persons.

Kristol argues that capitalism allows
-equal opportunity:
-social justice
-the equal distribution of assets
-fair outcomes
-the beautiful to succeed

equal opportunity

Kristol argues that capitalism got a "bad name" because the focus shifted from:
-socialism to distribution
-distribution to production
-production to distribution
-socialism to production
-production to socialism

production to distribution

True or False:
Kristol argues that the belief in perfect equality is a natural belief that we all share.

false

"A Capitalist Conception of Justice" Irving Kristol:
Is Adam Smith's understanding of capitalism harsh and "soulless"

no

"A Capitalist Conception of Justice" Irving Kristol:
What makes Smith's understanding of capitalism more humane than some other versions of capitalism?

Adam Smith never believed for a moment that human beings were strictly economic men and women. He understood that people live in a society, not just in an economy, and that they feel a sense of social obligation to one another, as well as a sense of engaging in mutually satisfactory economic transactions.

"Justice Ruins the Market" Friedrich von Hayek:
How does justice ruin the market, according to Hayek?

It becomes a divisive force because it produces not a reconciliation of, but a conflict between, the interests of the different groups. It becomes in practice a struggle for power of organized interests in which arguments of justice serve merely as pretexts.

Who argues that the attempt to impose "social justice" on a healthy marketplace will in the end only harm the market and those whom the original action intended to help.

Hayek

One criticism Hayek has of socialism is that:
-it does not allow different groups to have differing views about what they are entitled to
-it discourages people from technological progress
-it allows for "free riders"
-a and c
-all of the above

it does not allow different groups to have differing views about what they are entitled to

True or False:
Hayek contends that a free market society should strive always to financially assist the least advantaged members of that society (through taxation, for example).

false

"Comparable Worth: A Matter of Simple Justice" Gerald W. McEntee:
What is comparable worth?

a means of closing the gap between men's salaries and women's salaries that can be attributed only to sex descrimination. a means to bring the wages of working women into the main stream

Who offered a simple, clear argument in defense of fairness in guaranteeing the equality of men's and women's earnings. Because the labor of men and women is of "comparable worth," they should have comparable pay.

McEntee

Which of the following helps explain the wage gap between men and women?
-the later entry of women into the workforce
-the inability of women to perform as well as men
-women"s high rate of leaving the workforce to take care of children
-all of the above
-none of the above

the later entry of women into the workforce

Smith argues that the division of ________ is a consequence of human nature—the propensity to "truck, barter and exchange" one thing for another.

labor

Ciulla states that the difference between indentured servitude and slavery lies with _______.

consent

Rawls argues that _________ consists in the principles that free, rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality

justice

One of Rawls's principles requires ________ in the assignment of rights and duties.

equality

__________ poverty is the sort of poverty characterized by some citizens being poor when compared with their wealthy neighbors.

relaitve

Singer argues that _________ poverty is poverty by any standard.

absolute

Singer argues for an obligation to _______ the ________.

assist the poor

Kristol states that a person who believes in social justice is an _________.

egalitarian

Hayek argues that social ________ inevitably becomes a disruptive force.

justice

Who argues that the division of labor is a consequence of human nature—the propensity to "truck, barter and exchange" one thing for another.

Smith

Who states that the difference between indentured servitude and slavery lies with consent.

Ciulla

Who argues that justice consists in the principles that free, rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality

Rawls

One of who's principles requires equality in the assignment of rights and duties.

Rawls

Who argues that absolute poverty is poverty by any standard.

Singer

Who argues for an obligation to assist the poor.

Singer

Who states that a person who believes in social justice is an egalitarian.

Kristol

Who argues that social justice inevitably becomes a disruptive force.

Hayek

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