An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire in the years before WWI.
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
World war I alliance of Britian, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and 21 other countries
World War I alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
Czar Nicholas II
Monarch of Russia; people felt he wasn't taking care of the country
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I.
a deadlock in which no progress is made; neither side gains or loses
agreement to stop fighting so a peace treaty can be considered
psychological trauma caused by the stress of war
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
an attempt to sway or manipulate public opinion
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
This treaty ended Russia's participation in the war.(they signed it with Germany)
Battle of First Marne
trench warfare began here
Battle of Second Ypres
Chlorine gas was used for the first time
Battle of Verdun
longest battle of the was; it lasted10-months and ended in a stalemate
Battle of Jutland
Biggest naval battle between subs and battleships; in the North Sea
Battle of Somme
One of the bloodiest battles, 58,000 British died. Tanks were used for the first time
Battle of Belleau Wood
1st US battle; "we dig no trenches" said the US general in charge of the attack
Manfred von Richthofen
the Red Baron; German fighter pilot with 80 kills
Serbian who assassinated Franz Duke Ferdinand
"Healer" or "holy man" to the Russian royal family. Many people felt he had too much control over them
Frenchman in charge of all the Allied troops
American hero killed 25 and captured 132 German soldiers
Kaiser Wilhelm II
German leader who left the German people at the end of the war
leader of the Bolsheviks who overthrew the Russian czar; the start of communism in Russia
1st female member of Congress, voted against the United States going into WW1
German Plan to march though Belgium and conquer France quickly in order to avoid fighting on two fronts
Emperor of Austria-Hungary at the outbreak of World War I.
Selective Service Act
required all men ages 21-30 to register for the draft
a way for the US government to raise money to pay for the war
dominated warfare; snipers were trained for the first time (American)
first biological warfare. three types: Tear gas- mild, Chlorine gas- destroyed respiratory system, led to a slow death, Mustard-most deadly, resulted in a painful, slow death (German)
slow and bulky; created wheels to move over barbed wire and trenches (Mark IV-British)
submarines, Germans used them most effectively against the British navy
Filled with hydrogen, used to raid Paris and London (German)
one seater fighter plane (Sopwith Camel-British)
Giant battleships; the British had the most in their powerful navy
reason Russia left the war; it pleased President Wilson and made it easier for him to join the Allied team
German ambassador sent it to Mexico. They wanted Mexico to invade the US from the south so they wouldn't enter the war. It became a key reason for Wilson to declare war against Germany.
Four Allied leaders who decided the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
David Lloyd George
British Prime Minister
Italian Prime Minister
President Wilson's plan for the peace treaty
payments for war damage
land between Germany and France that France reclaimed as part of the Treaty of Versailles
someone who refuses to serve in the military for moral or religious reasons
first US black unit in the war
The Great Migration
mass movement of African Americans from the South to the North- attracted by job opportunities and less Jim Crow laws
League of Nations
Wilson's idea for an organization of nations that would promote cooperation and peace.
Sedition Act of 1918
made it illegal for americans to speak disloyaly about the US government, constitution, or flag
Schenck vs United States
The Supreme Court ruled against Schenck. They stated that censorship during war is acceptable; freedom of speech is less important than the safety of our soldiers.
Pandemic that spread around the world in 1918, killing more than 50 million people
A nickname for the American soldiers during WWI
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died.
Gardens that citizens planted to raise their own vegetables, so that food could be sent to the troops.
Battle of Gallipoli
. It was an operation meant to secure a sea route to Russia. It failed, with nearly half a million casualties.