a few miles above earth's surface to a few miles below.
where all the known life in the universe lives.
interacts with atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism.
organization of an individual's body
a complete living thing.
an interbreeding group.
all individuals of the same species within a defined area.
all populations within a defined area.
all communities and abiotic factors within a defined area.
share common characteristics, interbreed in nature, produce fertile offspring.
the capacity to perform work, life cannot exist without it, cannot be created or destroyed.
what is the source of almost all energy for the biosphere.
energy is not recycled constant input needed.
diagram of one possible path of energy transfer.
diagram of multiple possible paths of energy flow. energy is transferred and transformed at each step. usable energy is lost at each step.
photosynthesizing green plants.
plant eating animal
animal that eats herbivores
carnivore that east another carnivore.
organisms that break down and recycle dead material.
pyramid of energy
diagram showing loss of energy at each trophic level.
pyramid of biomass
diagram showing combined mass of organisms at each trophic level.
relationships: one animal hunts and eats another.
relationships: one smaller animal feeds off another without killing eat.
"living together" species interact without damaging each other
relationships: both species benefit from each other
relationships: one species benefits, the other doesn't
species vie for something, food, space, light.
individuals within species compete
individuals of different species compete
two species compete for the same resource, one loses and either becomes extinct or lives in a marginal habitat where there is no competition from the winner.
defined as characteristics that helps an organism perform its role or fill its niche. behavioral or structural.
organisms role in ecosystem, what it does. combines habitat, adaptations, energy, relationships, and behaviors.
a type of place an organism lives.
the entire geographical area over which a species is found.
measure of variety. related to number of species. tends to be stable within established community.
ability of a community to recover from disturbance and resist change.
what makes communities more stable?
predictable changes in species composition and diversity over time after a disturbance.
earliest communities in succession
stable community with predictable species composition and diversity, represents 'end' of succession until new disturbance occurs.
begins with bare rock, rocks break down into soil over long period.
begins with soil already in place, reaches climax much faster
ecosystems that cover large geographical areas.
temperature and precipitation
what determines a biome?