A&P 2 - test 2 cardiovascular and Lymphatic system

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Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located?

carotid sinus and aortic arch

If blood pressure is increased at the arterial baroreceptors, what would happen with the activity level of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS)?

increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity

Which of the following would cause vasodilation of

decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in which of the following?

an increase in heart rate and contractility

A decrease in blood pressure at the arterial baroreceptors would result in which of the following?

a decrease in heart rate

Vasodilation will result in increased blood flow to a given tissue.

True

elastic arteries

CONDUCTING ARTERIES
HELP TO PROPEL BLOOD ONWARD
HAVE ELASTIC FIBERS IN TUNICA MEDIA
STRETCH AND RECOIL arteries
AORTA
SUBCLAVIAN
BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK
COMMON CAROTID
VERTEBRAL
PULMONARY

Substances absorbed in the intestines would be routed to the liver via the__________.

hepatic portal system

MUSCULAR ARTERIES - DISTRIBUTING ARTERIES

MEDIUM SIZE
MORE MUSCLE IN TUNICA MEDIA
DISTAL TO ELASTIC - DELIVER BLOOD TO ORGANS
VASOCONSTRICTION AND VASODILATION
THICK WALLS
DISTRIBUTING ART/DIRECT BLOOD FLOW
BRACHIAL
TIBIAL
RADIAL
GASTRIC

ARTERIOLES - RESISTANT VESSELS

SMALL - DELIVER BLOOD TO CAPILARIES
TUNICA MEDIA CONTAIN FEW LAYERS OF SMOOTH MUSCLE -
10 TO 100 FORM CAPILLARY BEDS

METARTERIOLES

VESSELS THAT ARISE FORM ARTERIOLES AND FORM BRANCHES INTO 10-100 CAPILLARIES = CAPILLARY BEDS

THOROUGHFARE CHANNEL

PRE-CAPILLARY SPHINCTERS CLOSE AND BLOOD FLOWS OUT OF CAPILLARY BEDS INTO THE THOROUGHFARE CHANNEL

LAYERS OF ARTERIES

TUNICA INTIMA - INTERNA
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS - ENDOTHELIUM
BASEMENT MEMBRANE
INTERNAL ELASTIC LAMINA

LAYERS OF ARTERIES

TUNICA MEDIA
CIRCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE
ELASTIC FIBERS

LAYERS OF ARTERIES

TUNICA EXTERNA
ELASTIC & COLAGEN FIBERS

Which vessels carry blood away from the heart?

ARTERIES -
ELASTIC ARTERIES - CONDUCTING VESSELS
MUSCULAR ARTERIES - DISTRIBUTING VESS
ARTERIOLES - RESISTANCE VESSELS
CAPILLARIES - EXCHANGE VESSELS

VEINS

VENULES MERGE TO FORM VEINS

VA VASORUM

VESSELS IN THE WALLS OF LARGE DIAMETER VESSELS

Which vessels carry blood away from the heart?

True

What type of tissue is found in the walls of the arteries that leave the heart but not in the walls of the large veins that enter the heart?

endothelium - simple squamous epithelium

Leaky capillaries found in the bone marrow are called_______

sinusoidal capillaries

type of capillaries

CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES
FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES
SINOSOID CAPILLARIES

CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES

FOUND IN SKELETAL & SMOOTH MUSCLE
SKIN, BRAIN , CONNECTIVE TISSUE AND LUNGS
MOST COMMON TYPE OF CAPILLARY

FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES

THEIR PLASMA MEMBRANE HAVE HOLES
KIDNEYS, SMALL INTESTINE, CHOROID PLEXUS CILIARI PROCESS AND ENDOCRINE GLAND

SINUSOIDS CAPILLARIES

LARGE FENESTRATIONS
INCOMPLETE BASEMENT MEMBRANE
LIVER,
BONE MARROW
SPLEEN
ANTERIOR PITUITARY
PARATHYROID GLAND

VENULE

TUNICA MEDIA CONTAIN ONLY FEW SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS
VERY PORUS ENDOTHELIUM ALLOWING FOR SCAPE OF MANY PHAGOCYTIC CELLS WBC
WALLS VARY BETWEEN CAPILLARY AND VEIN JUNCTIONS IN A GRADUAL TRANSITION

At a given point along a capillary, the net hydrostatic pressure (Net HP) is 20 mm Hg and the net osmotic pressure (Net OP) is 25 mm Hg. What is the Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) at that point?

5mm Hg

Two pairs of arteries supply the brain. They are: ________.

vertebrals and internal carotids

The subclavian artery that arises directly from the aorta supplies the ________.

left upper extremity and neck

These veins drain the brain.i

Internal jugular veins

Which of the following is directly involved in long-term blood pressure regulation?

renal mechanisms

Which of the following would experience a decreased blood flow during exercise?

kidneys

Which of the following is a long-term mechanism for maintaining blood pressure?

renal regulation

Which of the following is an example of autoregulation of blood flow?

nitric oxide

Which of the following would not move by diffusion across a capillary into the surrounding tissue?

...

Why is it important that blood pressure drop to lower levels as it reaches the capillary beds?

capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable

The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ________

Hepatic portal circulation

Which vein carries nutrient-rich blood from the digestive system to the liver?

hepatic portal vein

Substances absorbed in the intestines would be routed to the liver via the________

hepatic portal system

The hepatic portal vein ________.

carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver.

The first major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ branch.

BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK

The third major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ artery.

LEFT SUBCLAVIAN

The ________ supply the brain with blood.

INTERNAL CAROTID

T OR F: A sustained blood pressure of 140/90 or greater indicates hypertension in the patient.

TRUE

What do the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale become at birth?

LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM
FOSSA OVALIS

What is the major factor controlling stroke volume during resting periods?

VENOUS RETURN TO THE HEART

Of the following factors affecting blood pressure, which is (are) the most easily regulated?

VESSEL DIAMETER AND CARDIAC OUTPUT

Baroreceptors detect changes in _____.

STRETCH IN ARTERIAL WALLS

If baroreceptors are primed to detect blood pressure changes and compensate for them, how is it that some patients suffer from chronic hypertension?

The baroreceptors in these patients have a new higher set point.

Which of the following changes would effect the longest lasting changes in blood pressure?

RELEASE OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE

A decrease in 02 level in skeletal muscle would initiate an autoregulatory mechanism that would stimulate _____ in the arterioles supplying the muscle.

VASODIALATION

Why is vasodilation prominent in the skin when a person increases physical activity?

Heat is dissipated across the skin from the blood to help cool the body.

What role do the lymphatic vessels have when it comes to fluid movements across the capillary beds?

Lymphatic vessels reclaim any fluid from the tissue spaces that doesn't get returned to the blood.

Blood drained from digestive organs empties into the ____ before going through the liver.

HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN

THe major vessel delivering deoxygenated blood to the lungs is the _____.

PULMONARY TRUNK

Compression of which vessel could cause unconsciousness?

CAROTID ARTERY

SYNCOPE

VASODEPRESSOR - EMOTIONAL

SITUATIONAL - URINATION - DEFECAT SEVERE COUGH

DRUG INDUCED SYNCOPE - ANTI-

HYPERTENSIVE DIURETICS VASODILATORS

ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION = EXCESS DECREASE IN BP

VENOUS RETURN DEPENDS ON

PRESSURE DIFFERENCE IN VENULES 16mmhg - to right atrium 0 mmhg

functioning HEART VALVES

SKELETAL MUSCLE PUMP

REPIRATORY PUMP (BOYLE'S LAW)
DECREASE OF THORACIC PRESSURE AND INCREASE IN ABDOMINAL PRESSURE DURING INHALATION, MOVES BLOOD INTO THORACIC VEINS AND THE RIGHT ATRIUM, WHE DIAPHRAGM CONTRACTS

IMPUT OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR CENTER

PRIOR RECEPTORS

BARORECEPTORS

CHEMORECEPTORS

PRIOR RECEPTORS

INPUT DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
MONITORS MOVEMENT OF JOINT AND MUSCLES

BARORECEPTORS

CHANGES IN BP - CAROTID RECEPTOR AND AORTIC ARCH - CHANGE IN BP

CHEMORECEPTORS

IMBALANCE IN CARBON AND OXYGEN - MONITOR THE BALANCE OF CHEMICALS IN THE BLOOD

EPINEPHRINE IS A POSITIVE

INOTROPIC - IT INCREASES CONTRACTILITY OF THE HEART

VASOMOTOR CENTER CONTROLS DIAMETER

...

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